Feature Post

Tuesday, November 22, 2011

Alessandro Volta

Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist, known for his pioneering work in electricity. Volta was born in Como and educated in public schools there. In 1800, he developed the battery is called Upper Volta, a pioneer of the electric battery, which produces a constant flow of electricity. In honor of his work in the field of electricity, the electrical unit known as the volt was named in his honor.

Milestones: 
1775 Volta invented the electrophorus, a device that produces a static charge.
1777, he studied the chemistry of gases, discovered methane
1779 he became professor of physics at the University of Pavia
1794 Volta Peregrini married Teresa, daughter of Count Peregrini, the couple had three children.
1800 developed the so-called voltaic pile, the predecessor of electric batteries
1810 in connection with his work in electricity, Napoleon made a count
1815, the Emperor of Austria was appointed professor of philosophy at Padua.
1816 The works of Volta was published in five volumes in Florence
1881 an important electrical unit, volt, was named in his honor.

Volta, Alessandro Volta, Count Alessamdro Volta, the battery, electric battery, battery voltic, wet-volt battery, inventor, biography, profile, history, inventor of the story, who invented, invention of, fascinating facts.

HISTORY:

Alessandro Volta, Italian physicist, known for his pioneering work in electricity. Volta was born in Como and educated in public schools there. In 1774 he was appointed professor of physics at the Royal School of Como, and the following year he invented the electrophorus, an instrument that produced charges of static electricity.

In 1776-1777, he devoted himself to chemistry, studying atmospheric electricity and the design of experiments such as the ignition of gases by an electric spark in a closed container. In 1779 he was appointed professor of physics at the University of Pavia, a chair he held for 25 years. In 1800, he developed the battery is called Upper Volta, a pioneer of the electric battery, which produces a constant flow of electricity.

In honor of his work on electricity, Napoleon made him a count in 1810. The Museum of Como, Volta temple was erected in his honor and exhibits some of the original instruments he uses to perform the experiments. Lake Como is located near the Villa Olmo, which houses Volta Foundation, an organization that promotes scientific activities. Once young people engaged in their studies and made his first inventions in Como.


Inventor       :     Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta    
Criteria        :     First to invent.
Birth            :     February 18, 1745.in Como, Lombardy, Italy
Death          :     March 5, 1827.near Como, Lombardy, Italy
Nationality  :     Italian
Invention     :     electric battery in 1800    
Function       :     noun / electric bat·tery / voltic pile
Definition    :     In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in    an electrical form. A battery converts chemical energy into electric energy. It is a connected bunch (or “battery”) of electro-chemical devices.








Wednesday, November 16, 2011

The North River Steam Ship


Fulton, Robert (1765-1815), one of the most obscure of famous men in American history, was an inventor and mechanical engineer, and artist. He is best known for the design and construction of Clermont, the first commercially successful steamboat. The Clermont inaugurated a new era in the history of transportation. Besides his work with steamboats, Fulton made numerous important contributions to the development of naval warfare, the submarine, the technology of mine warfare, design and construction of the first steam warship and that the transport channel.

In the early years. 
Fulton was born November 14, 1765, a farm near Little Britain, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He spent his childhood in Lancaster, and showed inventive talent at an early age. He turned out to be lead pens, household goods, his mother, and salt to the stars for the celebration of the city. Fulton has developed a manual for use in a rowboat. He also built a rifle that had the vision and the hole in the original model.

Fulton went to Philadelphia at the age of 17 years, and became an apprentice goldsmith. It was not long to shine as a painter of portraits and miniatures. He saved enough money to buy a farm of his mother. At 21, Fulton went to England to study with the way the American artist Benjamin West. In London, Fulton made a modest living as an artist. But he became increasingly interested in the scientific and technical progress. After 1793, he gave all his attention in this area, and painted just for fun.

Inventor. 
Fulton first enthusiasm was for the development of the canal. He designed new types of river boats, and a system of inclined planes to replace the locks of the canal. Other mechanical problems have defied. He invented a machine for making ropes and one for spinning flax. It was a labor saving device for marble cutting, and invented a dredging machine to cut the strings channel. In 1796, Fulton published a treatise on the improvement of the navigation channel. Around 1797, Fulton turned his attention to the submarine. In 1801 he built a dive boat, the Nautilus, which could drop to 25 feet (7.6 meters) underwater. Fulton's work with submarines continued until 1806. He realized the dangers that submarines would bring to the battle, but he believes they could be used to reduce the sea of ​​war and piracy, just that reason. Experimental submarine Fulton was able to dive and surface, and he managed to jump craft anchored test.

However, the problem of underwater propulsion will never be resolved satisfactorily. Fulton interested in the ideas of Napoleon Bonaparte and the British Admiralty, but none of them has ever given them completely.

In 1802, Robert R. Livingston, U.S. minister to France, Fulton interested in directing his attention to steamboats. Fulton had been interested for many years in the idea of ​​steam propulsion for a boat. A boat experiment, launched on the Seine in Paris in 1803, sank because the engine was too heavy. However, a second ship, which was built in the same year, operated successfully. Fulton returned to America in 1806.

To build in Clermont. 
Fulton directed the construction of the ship in New York in 1807. Registered with the North River Steam Boat, the ship was usually called the Clermont after the Hudson River home, Robert Livingston. '17 And in August 1807, the ship began its first successful trip 150 miles (241 km) along the Hudson River in New York at Albany, about 30 hours, including nights. After restoration, the boat began to provide scheduled passenger service, the Hudson. Clermont was not the first steamboat was built, but it was the first to become a practical, economical and commercially successful steamboat. Fulton did not try to build the engine yourself, as inventors had previously done. Instead, he ordered a watt, and adapt it to his boat.

The Clermont was long and thin. The Hudson River, the public witnesses a shocking scene. There, in the river was a mechanical monster spewing flames and smoke. He was "Mr. Fulton madness! Most people thought that the engine would break out full steam and the high heavens explode or turn like a log rapidly flowing, people were wrong. Part of the success of Fulton was due to his concern for the comfort of the passengers. announced their brochures: Dinner will be served at exactly two o'clock tea with meat ... ... Dinner at 8 pm and a shelf was added to each pier, to which lords for Please put your boots, shoes and clothes, the car was not crowded. Following the success of Clermont, Fulton is responsible for the construction and operation of other vessels. He also defended the monopolies that state legislatures had granted to him and Robert Livingston. Fulton designed and built a steam warship, Fulton First of all, to defend the port of New York in 1812, the war, but died before the end of this remarkable craft. The statues statue in Fulton Hall, Washington, DC, honoring his accomplishments.

Invented the first motorcycle


Motorcycles are descended from the "safety" bicycle, bicycles with front and rear wheels of the same size, with a crank mechanism to drive the rear wheel. The bikes were in turn descended from the high-wheel bicycle. The wheels came from a high early form of push bike without pedals, propelled by the rider's feet pushing against the ground. These appeared around 1800, used wagon wheels iron beds, and are called "bone-crushers," both for their behavior shocking, and their tendency to throw their riders.

Gottlieb Daimler (who later team Daimler timber frame "Bone Crusher" d with Karl Benz to form Daimler-Benz Corporation) is credited with building the first motorcycle in 1885, one wheel in front and one in back, even if it was a little topping up to each side. It was built mainly of wood, the wheels are iron beds wooden spoked wagon-type, really a "bone crusher" chassis.

It was powered by an act of a single cylinder Otto cycle engine, and may have had a type of jet the carburetor. (Assistant Daimler, Wilhelm Maybach was working on the invention of the spray carburetor at the time).

With the inclusion of two wheels with steam propulsion as a motorcycle, the first may have been American. A machine as it was introduced at fairs and circuses in the eastern United States, built in 1867, Sylvester Howard Roper is a Roxbury, Massachusetts. There are examples Roper machine, dated 1869. And 'powered by a coal-fired two-cylinder, whose connecting rods directly drive a crank on the rear wheel. This machine has been preceded by an invention of the bicycle safety for many years, so its chassis is also based on fly "bone-crusher".

Most of the developments in this first of eras concentrated on three and four-wheel models, because it was complex enough to get the machines operate without the worry of them falling. Next was a remarkable two-wheeled Millet in 1892. Use a 5-cylinder engine built in the center of the rear wheel. The cylinders rotated with the wheel, and its crankshaft constituted the rear axle.

The first really successful production two-wheeler, however, was the Hildebrand & Wolfmueller, patented in Munich in 1894. He had a step-through frame, with its fuel tank mounted on the down tube. The engine was a parallel twin, mounted low in the chassis, with its cylinders going fore and aft. The connecting rods connected directly to a crank on the rear axle, and instead of using heavy flywheels for energy storage between cylinder firing, used a pair of large rubber bands, one on each outer side of the cylinders, to attend the compression stroke. Was cooled, the mother of all motorcycle engines andTHE - the DeDion-Buton had a water tank / radiator built into the upper rear spoiler.

In 1895, the French company DeDion-Buton built an engine that was to make mass production and common use of motorcycles possible. It 'was a small, lightweight, high-revving four-stroke single, and used battery-and-coil ignition, eliminating the troublesome hot-tube. Cylinder 50 mm for 70 mm figures gave the transition 138cc. The total loss lubrication system was taken with a crankcase oil to drip from the valve measurement, which is then drunk around to lubricate and cool components before downloading them to the ground via a breather. DeDion-Buton used electric power in the central half Trikes road going, but the engine was copied and used for all, including Indian and Harley-Davidson motorcycle USFirst American series - 1898 Orient-Aster

Although a gentleman named Pennington built some machines around 1895 (do not know if they actually ran), the first U.S. production motorcycle was the Orient-Aster, built by the Metz Company in Waltham, Massachusetts in 1898. Use the Aster engine that was built in the French copy of DeDion-Buton, and before that the Indian (1901) for three years, and Harley-Davidson (1902), four of them.

Tuesday, November 1, 2011

Christopher Columbus in the History of America

American national memory is full of symbols and icons, avatars, and deeply rooted out yet, I think. Role in the history of iconography in the United States is widespread, but the facts behind the fiction are somehow lost in a fog of amorphous patriotism and perceived national identity. Christopher Columbus, when the hero and symbol of the first order in America, is an important figure in the pantheon of American myth. His position, not unlike most American icons, representing not his accomplishments, but the idea of ​​society that led him to a pedestal-American gallery of heroism.

This gallery was not present at the birth of the political nation. America as a young republic, found themselves immediately in the midst of an identity crisis. Completing a violent separation from England and its cultural and political icons, America was left with no history - or heroes. Michael Kammen, in Mystic Chords of Memory explains that "repudiation of Americans moved to the left of the young republic, not a sound basis on which to base a common sense of their social self." (65) A new national history was necessary, but the revolutionary leaders, obvious choices for mythical transformation, were loath to be raised to their pedestals. "While all nations need a mythical explanation of his own creation, the process was paradoxically produced by the reluctance of revolutionary state to get their story told prematurely." (Kammen, 27) To be above others would be undemocratic, they thought.

The human need to explain the origin, to create its own identity through national identity, was thwarted by this reluctance. A vacuum was created, and was slowly filled with the image of Christopher Columbus.

"The partnership between Columbus and America took root in the imagination" in the eighteenth century. "People had more reason to think of themselves in terms of the hallmarks of America." (Noble, 250) of Americans in search of a story and a hero, discovered Columbus. A series of short stories and poetry references to Columbus arise in the years after the Revolution, Philip Freneau Photos of Columbus, Joel Barlow Vision of Columbus 1787, 1775 and Phillis Wheatley innovation, poetic device "Columbia" as a symbol of Columbus and America. Kings College of New York changed its name in 1792 in Columbia, and the new Capitol in Washington DC was called out of respect for those who want the country name after Columbus. Noble notes that

It is not difficult to understand the appeal of Columbus as a totem of the new Republic and the former subjects of George III. Columbus had found a way to escape the tyranny of the Old World. He was the solitary person who challenged the unknown sea, as triumphant Americans contemplated the dangers and promises of their own wild frontier ... as a consequence of his vision and daring, there was now a free land of kings, a vast continent for new beginnings. At Columbus the new nation has its own history and mythology found a hero from the distant past, one seemingly free of any taint of association with European colonial powers. The Columbus symbolism gave America an instant mythology and a unique place in history, and their adoption of Columbus magnified his own place in history. (252)

If the revolutionary generation was inspired by Christopher Columbus, consider the reaction of the nineteenth century: Christopher Columbus was an incarnation of the faith of this century - the search for new lands, an intrepid explorer. However, the discovery of America the nineteenth century, Columbus was not as simple as that of the late eighteenth century. The United States, and certainly in the 1830's, was in the middle of a love affair with the new. America was seen as the "land of the future" (Emerson "Young American," 1844), the most important new "old" history. Formal education for most of the nineteenth century, "has given little in the past in American history has remained largely a matter of minor -.. schools rarely form part of the program" (Kammen, 51) Americans had a duration of "too little attention to history, even the history of their own heroes.

"(Kammen, 49) The important thing was that his hero was bold, adventurous, and has represented innovation: who better than Christopher Columbus to represent bold new Americans in the United States still has a hero pantheon, the facts behind the faces were of little importance.

Again, as in the late eighteenth century, Columbus was a reflection of the company that created and recreated it. The comb reminds us that "societies in fact reconstruct their pasts rather than faithfully record them" do "with the needs of contemporary culture clearly in mind." (3) The culture of the early nineteenth century was one of increasing fragmentation and the "obstacles to achieving a viable, coherent sense of national tradition were many: separate sections, and value systems conflict with self-image of each other and themselves "as well as various factions and political parties. (Kammen, 50) Columbus was a perfect icon for the day confused in the early nineteenth century, through social, political and regional boundaries, giving a kind of superficial unity of the American national identity, created a decontextualized and increasingly one-dimensional hero level in the image of age.

Like Columbus to achieve this status? Once again, through the enhancement of its authors. Washington Irving was part of a "small but vocal group of Americans Antebellum," which "seemed deeply concerned about the irrelevance of the memory of their contemporaries," and in 1819 he expressed a desire to "'I lose myself between the magnitudes of shadow of the past. "(Kammen, 60), did just that recently found in manuscripts Navarrete (the work of one of Columbus's life of his contemporaries), which were published in 1825, using the documents to create a romantic hero the nineteenth century. His version of Columbus's life was published in 1829, was incredibly popular, "read with enthusiasm in the United States and participated in a Discoverer idealized image, which has dominated the literature over a century and has not been completely erased. The His surge produced some great love story, a biography more than reasonable. "(Noble 39)

Irving was not only, or in the early Revolutionary Columbus boosters, who created an idealized version of life Explorer. His contemporaries did not agree on the facts of Columbus's life, either. The researchers, however, to discuss issues that may seem to the public in some way already set in stone - what looked like, if you come from the idea of ​​sailing west to reach the east, although what he landed the first time on the island. The confusion began in the first "official" biography "Admiral" to his son, Don Fernando, who was curiously vague in several key areas - such as those mentioned above. Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, Martin Fernandez de Navarrete, Anghiera of Peter Martyr, and Bartolomé de la Casas, all the different points of view of man had become an American hero. Humphrey Gilbert, a citizen of the first British colony in the New World (Sant. John's, Newfoundland, 1583), said Colombo, "by Christopher Columbus famous memory, not only mocked and jeered in general, even here in England, but later became the laughingstock of the Spaniards themselves." (Qtd. noble, 248), and again in 1614, Lope de Vega, Columbus describes the more familiar light. His game El Nuevo Mundo por descubierto Cristobal Colon, Columbus is a "dreamer against the stolid forces rooted in tradition, the man who won the unity of being, the embodiment of that spirit forces to explore and discover. " (Noble, 249), conflicting information, ambiguous disclosure of the biography, and prejudices of the early writers was facilitated by the Americans early to take Columbus and mold for their intended purpose.

"Columbus Irving was a figure of heroic stature, eminently useful to the Americans who tried the first democratic experiment in modern times. Irving was presented to the youth of America as a culture hero inspired by God and sent by God .. . "(Shurr, 237) The view of Columbus as a favorite, overcoming their circumstances and" superior "was particularly resonant of the new republic, and its image as the great explorer, a symbol" of the mind and adventure human avatar western faith "(Noble, 48-9), his reputation seemed to have been guaranteed by the mid-nineteenth century, when the sculptor of the doors of the Capitol in Columbus, Randolph Rogers, said:" Maybe it is that a man [ie, George Washington] whose name is most closely linked to the history of this country deserves better, or a lasting monument to the memory of Christopher Columbus.

Since 1893, the year (a delay) American honor 400 years of Columbus landing (West Indies), Columbus came to the minds of Americans, the first true "father" without problems or conflicts (especially in its treatment of indigenous people he encountered) was dissolved. "Most people live in America, four centuries after the discovery of Travel was established in Columbus, wanted to believe, and were quite satisfied with the invention." (Noble, 258), Amy Leslie, a correspondent for the Chicago Daily News, World's Columbian Exposition, nominally anniversary of Columbus' "discovery" of America. He stressed that he was surprised to see a statue of George Washington's, "which, until Columbus had discovered America, why something happens vehemently held in the hearts of his countrymen.

"(Buck 93) in the United States, because the country was fully embraced the ideals that Columbus was that it was" a symbol of success America ... It 'clear that the show was over the memory of the past, it was also a cry to the future, confident Americans were eager to share and enjoy. "(Noble, 256)

For the fifth centenary of 1992, Christopher Columbus was practically devoid of any positive symbolic meaning. The pendulum has swung, and now "is demystified post-colonial and Columbus. He was stripped of his coat, a symbol of optimism and is exposed as a man whose faults echoes many of the consequences." (Noble, 260) In our multicultural society, and often cynical society, we have created in our image of Columbus. As noted by Noble, "Each generation is back in the past and, based on their own experiences, it means finding models that illuminate the past and present." (XII)


Christopher Columbus was literally in the right place (Spain), at the right time (the dawn of the Age of Discovery) to define its place in history. America was the right place at the right time if necessary, simplify and mold Columbus to reflect the image of an independent and growing in America. Columbus found throughout American popular culture, national commemorations and memory, and clear in the Rotunda of the US Capitol. Roger Randolph massive bronze doors Columbus express this vision of Columbus, the ultimate visual expression of the American self-identity, as expressed in the explorer. He "came from the shadows, reincarnated not so much as a man and a historical figure, it was a myth and symbol. He came to the realization of explorers and discovers the man of vision and daring, the hero who overcame opposition and adversity to change history. "(Noble 249)

"(Fifth Centenary, 10) base its work on the romantic stories of Irving, Rogers depicts a heroic underdog, bold and ingenious explorer, a perfect figure for this age - and to engage in the pantheon of heroes of the America in the temple of legitimacy. Rotonde "Daniel Boorstin noted that people" once believed that their hero "and quoting James Russell Lowell". idol is the measure of worship "Therefore, writers and orators of the nineteenth century ascribed to Columbus all the human virtues that were most popular in the era of geographical and industrial expansion, heady optimism, and an unconditional belief in progress as the dynamics of history. "(Noble, 253)

Monday, October 31, 2011

Time Machine

It is not accidental configuration section using a laser to show turbulent Chaotic Micro-Flow has been used in connection with time travel. The plant has some interesting behaviors that can be seen easily. Examine the configuration means that some of the following:
Rise of critical radius r0, the YV distance, a rotation of the laser beam YU-> Z-> W-> B

For a total scattering angle DFE, the rotational movement of the laser beam results in an angular frequency / speed equal to ω = 2 * π / T. This in turn leads to a linear velocity v = ω * r, to the point of the laser beam, which is done remotely YV (as vectors of UT, ZA, WX and British Columbia).

Since V is a linear function of r, it follows that the R0 and thus a specific YV, where the linear velocity should be equal to c = 3 * 108m / s. This is, of course, during the same at r0. Assuming a relatively low T, as the speed of 10000 rpm, which is the fastest speed of the motor car, we have T = 3 / 500

Solving the equation c = v = ω * r to r, we obtain R0 ~ 286478.8m. Since r0/YV = tan (DFE / 2), we obtain: YV = r0/tan (DFE / 2), for R0 ~ 286478.8m and DFE / 2 = π / 9 gives: ~ YV 787094.3m

What does all this: If we were to set this little thing with a laser mirror angle θ = π equal to * 2.9 For example, while at a distance of 787 km ~ YV, where the radius of the scan will be approximately 286 , 5 km ~ r0, we find a 2D singular space-time [1] (check one) [2]. To create a singularity in 3D, it is necessary to generalize the three dimensions, can be done at least two ways:

Mechanical

A mechanical time machine based on the above principle can be realized as a mechanism of rotation, with two rotating rings (green), anchored in AB and CD:
Gyro Time Machine
To create a singularity at E, the linear velocity must be at least equal to c. As the linear velocity EH is the sum of its components EC and EC, we have: EF = EG + c. Since both mechanical rings are (almost) the same diameter, we have r * sqrt (ω12 ω22 +) = c, from which we obtain the basic equation of the time machine with n = 2 ring [4 ]:


The basic equation for the free time machine two rings

For a speed of 10000 rpm for two rings, we obtain r ~ 202.5 km.

Optical

A time machine optics based on the principle above can be done again as a gyro mechanism, but this time instead of mechanical rings, we can turn the laser beam. How many laser beams? To find out, we remember that each point on the surface of a sphere can be described by its Euler angles (α, β, γ). In addition, if a point A is rotated to a position E of Euler angles (α, β, γ), it can be shown that there are angles (a, b, c) such that the following list of operations of rotation of the point again that E [5]:

First rotation by angle a around the z axis

2. Turn the angle b around the new x-axis.

3. C angle of rotation around the z axis of the press.

Note that there are only two axes involved in the whole cycle using the angles (a, b, c). Therefore, we only need two rotating laser beams. Please note that this is the same as one of the laser beam and the two mirrors! Low reasonable inspection shows that we can use the following installation, as shown below [6]:

Time Machine with a laser gyroscope and two mirrors

Analysis

Choose a coordinate system in a grid format. It is shown, then the inclination angle θ and φ the azimuth. θ be realized in the CD tray runs C and φ is built around the fourth bar B (green ellipses).

For this configuration, then, if the rotational speeds of the two mirrors, JH and GF have periods T1 and T2, then the equations for the two angles versus time t is:

1. θ (t) = ω1 * s = 2 * π * t/T1

Second φ (t) = ω2 t = 2 * π * T/T2

To create a 3D singularity, then the tip of the laser beam must have a linear velocity v satisfies the fundamental equation (above). And then the phasor describing the motion of the laser beam in 3-space as a function of time t is given by:
Phasor optical time machine

When this laser configuration is spinning fast enough, you get the (spherical) 3D radius r0 of the critical singularity. Passing some of the values, if the speed is 10000 rpm and 30000rpm, then T1 = 60 / 10000, and T2 = 60 / 30000, which is obtained r0 ~ 90.6 km.

Time Dilation

Time for an observer inside the setup is relativistically expanded and is given as:

t '= t * γ = t / sqrt (1 - (v / c) 2)

where γ is the Lorentz factor now. Note that v = r * sqrt (ω12 ω22 +), where r is the distance from the observer B, and therefore the Lorentz factor becomes:
Lorentz factor of the optical machine T1 and T2 time

Follow the chart maple relativistic time dilation in the setup:
Relativistic time dilation machine time to end, with 0 ≤ ≤ 10000/60 f1, f2 = f1 * 3 and 0 ≤ r ≤ 100 km

For example, at a distance of 90 km with a speed of 10000rpm and 30000rpm, the Lorentz factor γ ~ 8.75. This means that the observer is inside the machine, at this distance from the center, moving with a speed 8.75 times faster than the time when an outside observer. This means that the observer moves toward the future

Friday, October 28, 2011

The Calendar

The aim of the calendar is the past or future, to show how many days until a certain event occurs during harvest or a religious festival, or the time that something important has happened. The first calendar must have been strongly influenced by the geographical situation of the people who made them. In cold countries, the concept of the year was determined by the seasons, specifically in the late winter. But in hot countries, where the seasons are less marked, the Moon has become the basic unit to calculate the time of an old Jewish book says that "the moon was set for counting day."

Most of the oldest calendars were lunar calendars, based on the time interval from one new moon to another, called a lunation. But even in hot weather there are annual events that do not pay attention to the phases of the moon. In some areas, it was a rainy season in Egypt was the annual flooding of the Nile. The calendar had to account for these annual events as well.
History of the Egyptian calendar
Egyptian year coincided exactly under the sun only once in 1460 years

The ancient Egyptians used a calendar with 12 months of 30 days each, totaling 360 days a year. Around 4000 BC they added five extra days at the end of each year to make it more in line with the sun years.1 These five days became a festival because it was considered unlucky to work during this period.

The Egyptians had calculated that the solar year was actually closer to 3651 / 4 days, but instead of that day, a jump every four years because of the breaking day (as we do now), left fourth day accumulates. When in 1460 calendar year, or four periods of 365 years, 1461 years, Egypt had passed. This means that over the years, the Egyptian months fell to synchronize the seasons, so in the summer months at the end he fell in the winter. Only 1460 years after the calendar year at the same time, just the calendar year.

In addition to the calendar of civic activities, the Egyptians also had a religious calendar based on lunar cycles and 291/2-day was closely linked to agricultural cycles and movements of the stars.

History of the Roman (Julian) Calendar
The Romans were superstitious than even numbers were unlucky, so that their months were 29 or 31 long days

When Rome emerged as a world power, was the difficulty of making a calendar well known, but the Romans complicated their lives because of their superstition that even numbers were unlucky. Thus, their months were 29 or 31 long days, except February, which was 28 days. But four months of 31 days, seven months and 29 days a month of 28 days added to only 355 days. Therefore, the Romans invented an extra month called Mercedonius 22 or 23 days. It was added every two years.

Even with Mercedonius, the Roman calendar eventually became as Julius Caesar, advised by the astronomer Sosigenes, ordered a thorough reform. 46 BC was 445 days long by imperial decree, the calendar back in step with the seasons. Then, the solar year (with a value of 365 days and 6 hours) was the basis of the calendar. Months are 30 or 31 days long, and to care for six hours, every four years there was a year of 366 days. Moreover, Caesar decreed the year began with the first of January, not the vernal equinox in late March.

This calendar was the Julian calendar named after Julius Caesar, and continues to be used by Eastern Orthodox churches for holiday calculations to date. But despite the correction, the Julian calendar still 111 / 2 minutes longer than the actual solar year, and after several centuries, added another 111 / 2 minutes until.

The Gregorian Calendar
The Julian calendar is deleted

In the 15th century, the Julian calendar had moved behind the solar calendar for about a week, so that the spring equinox was falling around March 12 instead of around March 20. Pope Sixtus IV (who reigned from 1471 to 1484) decided that a further reform was necessary and called the German astronomer Regiomontanus to Rome for advice. Regiomontanus came in 1475, but unfortunately died soon after, and the Pope reform plans died with him.

Then in 1545, the Council of Trent authorized Pope Paul III to reform the calendar once again. Most of the mathematical and astronomical work was done by Father Christopher Clavius, SJ The immediate correction, advised by Father Clavius ​​and ordered by Pope Gregory XIII, was that Thursday, October 4, 1582, should be the last day the Julian calendar. The next day would be Friday, October 15. For accuracy at long range, a formula was proposed by the Vatican librarian Aloysius Giglio was adopted: every fourth year is a leap year unless it is a century, 1700 years or the 1800th year of the century can be leap years if divisible by 400 (eg 1600 and 2000). This rule eliminates three leap years in four centuries, making the calendar sufficiently precise.

Despite the revised rule for leap years is a calendar year average is still about 26 seconds longer than the orbital period of the Earth. But the difference is 3323 years to build up one day.

History of the lunar calendar
Lunar calendar is based on ancient Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks and Jews

During the ancient lunar calendar is better to estimate the solar calendar year based on 19 years, 7 of these 19 years to 13 months. Period included a total of 235 months. Still in use lunation value of 291 / 2 days, this made a total of 6.9321 / 2 days and 19 solar years added up to 6,939.7 days, the difference in just one week per period, and about five weeks per century.

Up to 19 years, needed adjustment, but became the basis of the calendar, the ancient Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks and Jews. The calendar itself was used by the Arabs, but Muhammad later forbade shifting from 12 months to 13 months, so that the Islamic calendar is a month now about 354 days. As a result, the month of Islamic calendar, as well as Muslim religious festival, wandering in all seasons of the year.

Inventor of the Modern Computer

Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) was a civil engineer for the Henschel Aircraft Company in Berlin, Germany at the beginning of World War II. Konrad Zuse earned the unofficial title of "inventor of the modern computer" for his series of automatic calculators, which he invented to help with his long engineering calculations. Zuse has modestly refused the title of the new inventions praise many of his contemporaries and successors, to be equally if not more important than his.

One of the most difficult to make a calculation is large with a slide rule or mechanical calculator is keeping track of all intermediate results and use them to their rightful place in the later stages of the calculation. Konrad Zuse tried to overcome this difficulty. He realized that a self-calculator would require three basic elements: control, memory, and a calculator for math.

In 1936, Zuse made a mechanical calculator called the Z1, the computer binary. Zuse used it to explore several groundbreaking technologies in calculator development: floating-point arithmetic, high-capacity memory and modules or relays operating on the yes / no principle. Zuse ideas, not fully implemented in the Z1, succeeded more with each Z prototype

In 1939, Zuse completed Z2, the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer.

Konrad Zuse Z3, built in 1941, and recycled materials donated by university staff and students. This was the world's first electronic, fully programmable digital computer based on a binary floating-point number and switching system. Zuse used old movie film to save his programs and data Z3 instead of using paper tape or punched cards. The paper was a shortage in Germany during the war.

According to "The Life and Work of Konrad Zuse"

In 1941, the Z3 contains almost all the features of a modern computer as defined by John von Neumann and his colleagues in 1946. The only exception was the ability to store the program in data memory. Konrad Zuse did not implement this feature in the Z3, for his word memory 64 is too small for this mode of operation. Due to the fact that he wanted to calculate thousands of instructions in a meaningful order, which makes the memory used to store the values ​​or numbers.

Block structure Z3 is very similar to a modern computer. Z3 consisted of separate units, such as a punched tape reader, control unit, floating point arithmetic units, and input / output.

Konrad Zuse wrote the first algorithmic programming language called "Plankalkül 'in 1946, he used to program its computers. He wrote first in the world of chess with the program Plankalkül.

Zuse was unable to convince the Nazi government to support their work in a computer-based valves. The Germans thought they were about to win the war and was not considered necessary to support new research.

The Z1 through Z3 models were destroyed during the war with Apparatebau Zuse, the manufacturer of computer Zuse was formed in 1940. Zuse went to Zurich to complete his work on the Z4, the smuggling of Germany, the Z4 in a military truck, who hid in the stalls on the way to Zurich, Switzerland. The completed and installed the Z4, Division of Applied Mathematics Institute of the ETH Zurich in the use of it until 1955. The Z4 had a mechanical memory with a capacity of 1,024 words and several card readers. Zuse had no use moving images to store programs, you can now use punch cards. The Z4 had punches and various facilities to allow flexible scheduling, including address translation and conditional branching. In 1949 he returned to Germany to form a second company called Zuse KG to build and market their designs. Models Zuse was rebuilt in 1960 in the Z3 and Z1 in 1984.

Liquid Crystal Display Invention

James Fergason holds over 125 U.S. patents in the technology of liquid crystals, including the first practical use of liquid crystals. He is perhaps best known for the discovery of the twisted nematic field, which led to today's liquid crystal display (LCD).

Fergason was born in Wakenda, Missouri in 1934. He received a BS in Physics from the University of Missouri in 1956, and took a research position at Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pennsylvania next year. There he organized the first American research team for the study of liquid crystals (1957).

Many substances emit light when electrified, but the liquid crystals are the ones that reflect light when a current passes through them. These crystals were discovered in Germany in the 1880s, but it was not until 1950 that physicists began to consider requests for them, Fergason was the head of the field. In the decade of 1960, as associate director of the Institute of Kent State University Liquid Crystal Fergason was developing an LCD device based on the detection of breast cancer when he made the discovery that became the basis of their greatest invention (1967).

Liquid crystal displays, then the development of laboratories in competition for the voltage applied to the "dynamic scattering mode", which consumes too much power to poor results. Fergason used the discovery of '"effect twisted nematic field" of liquid crystals, to be channeled through the existing crystals in an efficient manner, which shows that if a good contrast and a long life with minimum power (1969). In a typical display, liquid crystal is compressed two thin layers of glass, which is relevant in the design of segmented electrodes invisible bars, which together form the figures. When power is applied to the electrodes on the right, the crystalline material reflects ambient light, creating a different reading of the unelectrified, and so unreflective, surrounding areas.

Fergason has received his first patent (# 3,114,836) in 1963 for his use of cholesteric liquid crystals for temperature sensing applications, the first liquid crystal practicing the invention. This was followed by his first patent for an LCD (# 3410999) in 1968, and a "twist nematic LCD cell" (# 3627408) in 1971. By then he had founded a company to manufacture ILIXCO poster (1970). Fergason first major client was held in Switzerland Gruen Watch. In 1977, most LCD LED digital clocks appears fresh and raw (LED). Since then, the LCD screen has been redone almost all types of display information, including calculators screens industrial, scientific and medical, as well as computers, video games and other electronic products.

All the while, Fergason has remained the leader in its field. He now works in miniature, and passive displays, augmented reality, and safety equipment. For example, Shields, president, Optical, Ltd. is located in Silicon Valley, Fergason was created and patented glasses that the liquid crystal becomes opaque as soon as possible (in 1 / 20, 000 of a second) the impact of any intense radiation, protecting the user's eyes to laser light. Optical Shields' panels Varilite Vision, "the company has made Finalist in the 1992 Discover Awards.

So far, James Fergason has won more than 125 U.S. patents and more than 500 foreign patents (more than 40 countries) for his work --- and also many rewards. Recently (1998), was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Inventor of Laser

Gordon Gould was born in New York in 1920. As a child he loved Thomas A. Edison and other inventors, with the encouragement of his mother mechanical mind. Later, Gould would even conceive and design one of the most important inventions in the 20th century: the laser.

In 1957, Gould was working on a doctorate in physics at Columbia University, where research in physics was booming. Among the other was Charles Townes, inventor of the maser (1951), teaching there. Gould, whose previous specialty was classical optics, doing research in microwave spectroscopy. One Saturday evening, Gould inspired "in a flash" with a revolutionary idea. "Lasers" "light amplification by stimulated radiation," or

A wave light amplifier would be much more powerful than a maser (which amplifies the microwave), since each photon of light of a hundred thousand times the energy of a photon of microwave radio. At the end of this weekend, Gould had designed a device that could predict the heat of a substance at the temperature of the sun in a millionth of a second.

Fearing competition, Gould left his doctorate in order to get his invention into production quickly. He spent 1958 refining and improving its model, but has not applied for a patent until 1959, believing they had to build a prototype before the presentation. Unfortunately, this resulted in a 20-year legal battle, Gould finally won in 1977 when the first laser of its patents were issued.

Meanwhile, laser technology, Gould was already used in many practical applications, including welding, examination and surgery. But he had not been idle during this time. As a professor at the Polytechnic Institute of New York (1967-1973), Gould founded the research lab lasers and a new department. In 1973, Gould co-founded an optical communications company, where he obtained another patent, before retiring in 1985.

Inventor of Television

I've never heard of Vladimir K. Zworykin? What about John Logie Baird? Or maybe you know the name of Paul Nipkow? If not, what about Charles Francis Jenkins? No? So you've probably heard of Philo T. Farnsworth!

Who are these people? All are entitled to the title of "father of television". What, if any, is the rightful owner, however, this nickname?

The creation of television, one of the most important inventions of the 20th century, with roots firmly planted in the 19th century. That was a logical extension of the technology of telegraphy and photography. Since the 19th century, inventors have been filing patents on devices that allow the transmission of moving images to the child.

Almost all the technologies that shows live images depends on a phenomenon called persistence of vision. If the human eye is presented with a series of still images very quickly, faster than about 10 per second, but do not see them as individual images, but a coherent picture. A film camera uses a long strip of film to take the picture after picture of a scene that captures every movement in the series of images. As these parts using a projector, it gives the viewer the illusion of a scene of continuous movement.

Inventors who want to transmit moving images electronically would have to find a way to do something similar to capture the image after the image and sends them down the wire to be reconstructed for display in another place.

Mechanical Television


A German, Dr. Paul Nipkow, built the first machine brutal to do in 1884. Nipkow camera device is based on a rotating disk with 24 small holes in it. The holes were arranged in a spiral so that the disc was rotated by one, would be an exploration area which focuses the image on the disc with a lens. On the other side of the disc was a light-sensitive photocell to generate an electrical signal when he was beaten for the light that passes through the holes. In this way, the image is converted into an electrical signal. Every time the disk rotates one full turn, a different image would be sent on the wire.

Receiving element Nipkow worked in the back of his camera. Instead of a photo cell, there was a neon lamp. Engineering neon lamp varies with the signal from the camera and the light passes through another rotating disk, synchronized with the first, then the other side of the disk image would be blurred form.

There were many problems with Nipkow's invention, and never out of the laboratory: For one thing the neon bulb does not generate enough light to make a useful image. When a bright light bulb became available in 1917, other inventors began to have an interest in the work of Nipkow. In America, Charles Francis Jenkins began to build a system using a variation of the rotation of the disks designed by Nipkow. In England, an inventor named John Logie Baird began experimenting with a similar system.

Baird was 34 when he began building his "TV" system. Working on a tight budget, he built his first device with the objects found in the attic where it was experimentation. An old tea box was used to support the electric motor that resulted from the disks. The discs have been reduced from cardboard. Other parts were mounted on pieces of scrap wood. The goal came from an old bicycle lamp. Colle, sealing and son held the device together.

Surprisingly, the system of capital was able to produce a small flick of the image. In 1926, Baird demonstrated a more refined version of its system of mechanical television to members of the Royal Institute. This led to news coverage in the Times of London and money from donors so that he can perfect his device. In 1930 Baird sent pictures via BBC transmitter at night after normal radio programs were closed. This was the first regular television service.

Despite the success of Baird, this form of television, which is returned to television because of engine operation and mechanics of disks involved, had many technical limitations. The engineers working on mechanical television could not get over about 240 lines of resolution means still images would be a bit fuzzy. The use of a rotating disk can also limit the number of new images per second that can be seen and this led to excessive blinking. It became evident that if the mechanics of television could be removed, higher quality and more stable images could be the result.

Electronic Television

The first man to imagine an electronic television was a British engineer named A. Electric Campbell Swinton. In a speech in 1911, Swinton has described the project, using a cathode ray tube and to capture the light and see a picture. The CRT is a glass bottle with a long neck at one end and a flat screen to another. A bottle of clean air has been pumped to the "electron gun" in the neck could shoot electrons to the flattened tube, which was covered with a phosphor coating material. When the electrons hit the material glow. Sweep up the flow of electrons back and forth in rows from top to bottom, and a variable intensity of the flow, based Swinton, the image can be plotted in a similar way Nipkow disks do not.

A modified version of the tube can also be used as a camera. If the flat end could get a sandwich of metal, a non-conductive material and a material photoelectric light focused on the flat end with a goal would give a positive charge inside the surface. By scanning electron flow through the flat end, back online, the costs could be read and the image can be transformed into a signal that could be sent to the screen to be seen.

Swinton concept almost exactly describes how the modern television, electronics. While his vision is almost perfect, Swinton, nor anyone else knew at the time actually engineer such a system and make it work. An electronic system if this could be made to work, however, would operate at speeds much faster than any mechanical system could and would give the impression of being composed of several rows, increasing the quality of image.
 
It was eleven years after the conference that the adolescent Swinton Utah became interested in the electronic television. Philo T. Farnsworth had read the Nipkow disk system, and decided that a good picture quality ever. If the test is in power, said one of the high school teachers that he thought he could design a better system. He proceeded to give out of a man surprised by the blackboard in the classroom. The teacher encouraged the Farnsworth and Farnsworth went to California to build a laboratory, where he could test his ideas. Working in dark rooms in Los Angeles and then San Francisco, Farnsworth had to work so secret that his lab was once a police raid, he thought he still used for the illegal production of alcoholic beverages.

From September 1927 Farnsworth was sent to sixty-line camera images on the screen using a fully electronic system. It was at this stage of his work has attracted the attention of David Sarnoff. Sarnoff was the head of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA): radios main power radio and parts of the United States.

Many of the RCA radio as soon as the patent expires, so Sarnoff was looking for another market, could have a TV corner was the obvious choice. When hiring, Vladimir Zworykin, a Russian immigrant who had experienced mechanical television a decade Sarnoff has sent him to California to see the work of Farnsworth. Later, Sarnoff would visit the Farnsworth laboratories.

Sarnoff and Zworykin quickly realized the value of the invention, Farnsworth and Sarnoff tried to buy girl for $ 100,000. Farnsworth, thinking I could do more in the payment of patent royalties that the RCA to sell his invention to them, refused. Sarnoff, irritated, said: "While there is nothing here, it is necessary" and sent Zworykin to build your own version of the technology.

Farnsworth keep the designs appear in the work and follow Zworykin lawsuits between the two companies. RCA was forced to pay Farnsworth $ 1,000,000 in license fees, but the beginning of World War II delayed the introduction of television in most U.S. and the market of electronic television did not really off after the war. By then, many key patents had expired and was never the money Farnsworth probably deserved for his contribution to electronic television.

To make matters worse, the majority of television history is written by employees of the RCA and perhaps in revenge for the license you were forced to leave, contributions to the Farnsworth left completely out of the story.

The closure of mechanical television
So what happened to the mechanical television program is broadcast in the UK? Baird soon realized he had to get help from the BBC to make its mechanical system a complete success. In 1930, however, the BBC has learned that the future of TV is not electronic, mechanical. Launched in November 1936, Baird's mechanical system will be sent a week alternatively an electronic EMI. British citizens were invited to choose what they liked best. The electronic system was much better, and Baird took off the air. Although Baird tried to sell the system for movie theaters, these plans stopped when World War II began, and the BBC television service was closed until the hostilities were over.

In 1939, RCA and Zworykin decided to show their new system of electronic television at the World Exhibition in New York. Not much development has taken place only after the Second World War was over, but in 1946 people could buy a tabletop ten-inch for $ 375.

So who was the real father of television? This invention is omnipresent, like many others, has played a role in its creation. However, it is obvious that much of the credit to electronic television should probably go to Philo Farnsworth. Farnsworth v. Court after the hearing Zworykin to recognize that his ideas found their way into the first commercial systems built on RCA. Many of the processes that operate inside the TV today, was developed in the dark her, a secret laboratory in California.

History Of Neon Lamp




The theory behind the technology dates back to 1675 Neon before the age of electricity when the French astronomer Jean Picard * was a faint glow in a mercury barometer tube. When the tube was shaken 
glow called atmospheric light took place, but the cause of the light (static electricity) was not understood at the time.

Although a causal barometric light was not yet understood, has been studied. Later, when the principles of electricity was discovered, scientists were able to move forward towards the invention of many forms of lighting.

Discharge lamps

In 1855, Geissler tube was invented, named after Heinrich Geissler, a German physicist and glassblower. Meaning Geissler tube was that when the generators were invented, many inventors began to experiment with Geissler tubes, electric, and various gases. When a Geissler tube was set at low pressure and the electric voltage was applied, the gas would glow.

In 1900, after several years of experimentation, several types of electric discharge lamps or vapor lamps invented in Europe and the United States. Simply defined electric discharge lamp is a lamp comprising a transparent container in which a gas is the energy at an applied voltage, and thus made to shine.

Georges Claude - Inventor of the first neon light

The word neon comes from the greek "Neos", which means "new gas". Neon gas was discovered by William Ramsey and MW Travers in 1898 in London. Neon is a rare element in gaseous atmosphere in the extent of 1 part of air at 65 000. It is obtained by liquefaction of air and separated from other gases by fractional distillation.

The French engineer, chemist and inventor Georges Claude (born September 24, 1870, d. May 23, 1960), was the first to apply the electric discharge in a gas closed neon tube (about 1902) to create a light bulb. Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public December 11, 1910 in Paris.

Georges Claude patented the neon lighting tube 19 January 1915 - U.S. Patent 1,125,476.

In 1923, Georges Claude and introduced French company Claude Neon, neon signs in the U.S. by selling two to one Packard car dealership in Los Angeles. Earle C. Anthony purchased the two signs reading "Packard" for $ 24,000.

Neon lighting quickly became a popular device in outdoor advertising. Visible even in daylight, people would stop and look at the first neon signs dubbed "liquid fire."

How the Neon Sign made?


Hollow glass tubes used to make neon lamps come in 4 foot, 5 and 8 lengths. Formulate the tubes, the glass is heated and lit the gas-air. Many of the compositions of glass are used depending on the country and the supplier. What is called Glass 'soft' has compositions including lead glass, soda-lime glass, glass, and barium. Glass "hard" borosilicate, the family has also been used. Depending on the composition of the glass, glass work is the range from 1600 "F for more than 2200'F. The air temperature in the gas-flame, depending on the fuel and the ratio is approximately 3000'F using propane.

The tubes are scored (partial cut) while cold with a file and broken into pieces while still hot. Then the artisan creates the angle and curve combinations. When the tube is completed, the tube most be processed. This process varies by country, the procedure is called "bombing" of the United States. The tube is partial vacuum. Then there is a short circuit with a high voltage current until the tube at a temperature of 550 F. Then the tube is empty again until it reaches a vacuum of 10-3 Torr. Argon or neon is refilled at a given pressure depending on the diameter of the tube and sealed. In the case of a tube of argon, additional measures are taken for the injection of mercury in general, 10-40ul depending on tube length and the weather is going to operate in.

Red is the color neon gas produces, neon gas glows with its characteristic red light even at atmospheric pressure. Currently, more than 150 possible colors in almost any color other than red is produced argon, mercury and phosphorus. Neon tubes actually refer to all the positive column discharge lamps, regardless of the gas filling. The color blue has been the discovery order (Mercury), white (CO2), gold (Helium), red (Neon), and then a variety of colors phosphor-coated tubes. Mercury spectrum is rich in ultraviolet light, which in turn excites the phosphor coating the inside of the tube of light. Phosphors are available in most any pastel colors.

Is The Virus Alive?

The simplest answer is no, because a couple of reasons, but I admit that this answer does not resolve all the philosophical background related to "life" and what it means to live. Ideally, the virus can be considered as the undead.

A virus can not do themselves, or multiply without the aid of the contents of living cells. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. There are other agents described in these words ex. Chlamydiaceae family, but his state of life is less often questioned. Maybe it's because they are able to reproduce by cell division and then continue to grow by producing its own proteins. Viruses are assembled from many components that were produced by the host cell kidnapped - once mounted, do not continue to grow. However, an organization is a reagent, increasingly self-sufficient autonomous replication agent metabolism. Yes, some viruses contain and encode enzymes and other structural proteins used to assemble new virions - even have genes that change / evolve over time

However, a virus depends on the ability of the host cell to generate the energy to do all the manufacturing process. Viruses do not come with batteries included, but then nothing "live" does!

In addition, the genome of the virus is mainly deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) or ribodeoxy nucleic acids (RNA), but not as much as in the case of cells of an organism or other antimicrobial agents.

How Small Is A Microorganism?

One of the most important thing to remember about the bacteria are their extreme smallness. The fact that they can not be seen with the naked eye, is one of the main reasons they are not the main reasons they are the people in the dairy and food industries. The average of a bacterial cell is 1 / 25000 of an inch in length and less in diameter. In other words, you can put 25 000 bacterial cells, side by side on a longline empty. However, if 25 000 people were lined up shoulder against shoulder, they would do a line of more than 18 miles long. For us to see these incredibly small living things, a microscope with a magnification of 800 more horsepower or more is required. However, offsetting most of the telescope can observe sporting magnify objects around 7 to 10 power. So if these bacteria are too small to see with the eye, not how you know they are present in food? The process we use is to plate the food examined to determine if bacteria are present.

Take samples of food and places to study a small portion of the agar, which includes food, where bacteria grow. Agar, gelatin-like substance containing bacterial food is actually placed in a Petri dish, shallow circular dish with a lid. A small portion of food research over the surface of the agar. Quantity of food is "covered", depending on the number of bacteria in food is suspect. Foods containing very few bacteria, up to one gram (g) or milliliter (ml) is "covered". Foods rich in bacteria, or one millionth of a gram or per milliliter of food should be covered. The food is mixed with sterile water to reach this small amount of agar in a petri dish. If bacteria are growing rapidly to produce offspring that are 12-48 hours to produce "pile" of bacteria in one place. We can see this mound, and call it a colony.

Individual bacteria are very small. They are usually one or two micrometers in diameter. Since micro means 1 / 000, 000 (1000000), are generally one millionth of a meter in diameter. The meter is 39.37 inches (3.33 cm longer than the yard). How many bacteria are lying side by side, it would take to reach a meter? Because they are a micro 1-1 meters wide, it would take about a million lying side by side to reach a meter, or 500 000 if you are 2 micrometers in width.

Bacteria is the same as a virus? Bacteria are small unicellular organisms. There are many different types who live around us ... on the computer keyboard on the table, in your face and your body! Most of them are harmless. Some, however, can cause illness in our bodies. If you get sick from the bacteria, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, a drug made from mushrooms, a natural enemy of bacteria, killing the bacterial infection.

Viruses are much smaller and is unlike any other living being on earth. In fact, scientists disagree about whether viruses are "alive" at all. When a small virus comes into contact with the cell type, he likes to attack the virus to the cell poles and spray it with instructions. This guidance supersedes the instructions in the natural nucleus. The cell becomes confused and begins to follow the new (wrong) instructions, and uses its energy to produce more viruses instead of what he was doing before. When the cell is full of new viruses, it explodes and viruses float in search of more cells. Our immune system produces white blood cells that kill viruses, but sometimes it takes time. When your white blood cells find a way to kill viruses, they never forget. If this type of virus never attack your new body, white blood cells killed instantly.

Bacteria are very small. They do things big. If bacteria three micrometers in length was enlarged to the size of a person six feet high, and if the person has been expanded in the same way, the person would be about 700 miles high. Yes, bacteria are small. The bacteria often live in tunnels left as hyphae of soil fungi die. Amoebae are unable to attack the bacteria in tunnels minute in diameter (Shigo, 1999).

It is assumed that each colony originates from a bacterial cell is 12-36 hours. If this assumption is true - sometimes it is not probable, it is possible to calculate the original number of bacteria in the food placed on agar in a petri dish, and knows exactly how much food was put on the plate initially.

While some bacteria are balls, while others are in the form of small hot dogs (hot dogs or sausage). Some of the bacteria with hanging chains as a chain of sausages. Often, these chains contain only a few cells, but a sort of chain of hundreds of cells. Hotdog-shaped bacteria are usually 2 or 3 times longer than wide, but some are much longer than the width. Some individual cells are long-shaped needle.

Many bacteria are increasing in all forms in the cell wall that divides the original cell into two daughter cells that have the same shape and genetic composition. As the cells grow, the time division (fission) is performed for each daughters may be as large as the mother cell had before it began fission (splitting).

Bacteria are very small (microscopic) single-celled prokaryotes, mostly without chlorophyll. (All other eukaryotic organisms - to take the DNA surrounding the nuclear membrane.

Except for some very interesting and other photosynthetic bacteria are chemosynthetic, bacteria are bad synthesizers. Most are saprophytes heterotropic (feeds on dead organic matter) and are important decomposers in the soil and water, but of course some decomposers of food and fiber plant pests and some species of animals causing serious and plant diseases.

To familiarize yourself with the three types of bacteria, first look at the color of the blade "type of bacteria." The cocci (singular: coccus) are spherical, the bacilli (singular: bacterium) are rod-shaped, the spirillum (spirillum) are spiral. Sometimes the cells are simple, sometimes they are together in chains or groups. For example, streptococci in chains of streptococci in pairs: diplococci, in irregular groups: staphylococci, diced ordinary

Bacteria are tiny organisms made from a single cell. They are present everywhere: air, soil, and skin, for example. Many of them are microbes that cause diseases (rhinitis, listeriosis, and others), but others are very useful for humans. For example, bacteria in the gut to aid digestion and often used by bacteria to food products (yogurt, sauerkraut, etc.).

Bacteria are tiny single-celled living things. Their cell walls are different from other living beings - they are made of another material, and the nuclei and organelles are not enclosed in membranes. Bacteria are very successfully adapted to a wide variety of habitats. While most people need oxygen for respiration, others use sulfate and nitrate instead of oxygen.

Bacteria are very small micro-organisms that can not be seen with the naked eye. So we can not see them swimming in the water. Another problem is that the millions of bacteria are often summarized in a small point.

You can see the bacteria when they grow up disk nutrients so that each colony of bacteria in the thousands of bacteria. Then we can see the bacteria colony.

Bacteria are very small - can not be seen with the naked eye - up to 3 million until the end of a pin. Some bacteria are essential for life and are naturally in the human gut and aid digestion. The bacteria that are harmful to humans are called pathogens, and it is these that cause food poisoning and other diseases. Many of these bacteria are destroyed during cooking, but some of them may produce spores and toxins that can survive very high temperatures, and thus can re-contaminate food as it cools.

As a side note, not all bacteria are very small, ie a few microns, there are some species that are a fraction of a millimeter in diameter. Most of the bacteria found to be 0.75 mm in diameter, was recently in the press, and is therefore only the naked eye. All of the illustrated book, this bacterium is April 16, 1999 edition of "Science" magazine.

Bacteria are very small, but they indicate a surprising complexity of their structures. The bacteria cause disease (pathogens) have several characteristics that make them a better ability to generate disease. An important feature is the ability to connect the victim. Many bacteria are able to purchase in your environment, gliding motion. Bacteria have long, flexible, spiral-shaped structure, scourge, which helps to pass the solution microbe. As the microbe grows, is synthesized by most of the self.

Bacteria are tiny creatures, which can be seen under a microscope.

Bacteria are very small (<1 to 5 microns) and can not be properly seen by electron microscopy. Fungi and protozoa are much larger (12 to 200 microns or more) and can be seen with increased light microsope x 400.

Bacteria multiply by splitting into two halves, a process called fission. In the most favorable conditions of a bacterial cell divides into two cells of approximately 20 to 30 minutes. Twenty minutes later, these two cells are elongated and divided into four cells. Then after 20 minutes, each of the four cells divide into eight cells and so on. This is called logarithmic ("log growth" as the bacteriologist call it). For example, "cell to cell 32 '1 'two-cell 4-cell" 8-cell "of 64 cells 16 cells' 128 cells 512 cells 256 cells 1024 cells, etc. In the above example of a bacterial cell, multiplying each 20 minutes increase this number in less than 3 hours to about 1020 cells. Within 36 hours of continuous operation, unlimited growth, there would be enough bacteria to fill 200 trucks of five tons! Of course, bacteria do not multiply indefinitely, if not control the growth of bacteria? One factor is temperature.

Nanobacteria have unique properties. First, nanobacteria can be grown in cell culture media of mammalian cells. But this organization is not necessary that all mammalian cells. It grows in the same or similar conditions to those used by mammalian cells. The doubling time is strikingly similar to human fibroblasts - three days. Bacteria are very small, coconuts, and the size of the average population is about 0.2 to 0.3 micrometers in diameter. Because they are so small that we can not use optical microscopy to observe. However, they have a sole proprietorship. Biogenic apatite is broduce in the form of a thick shell, and therefore become very difficult to see. Apatite is a high-density material can be easily seen. They seem to have very thick cell wall and yet you can apply a filter in relatively high yields through 0.2 micron filters and some of them pass through 0.1 micron filter. Heat resistance is outstanding. Bearing 90 ° C for 1 hour.

So this is the first body or stick resistant thermophilic organism isolated from humans. We can not really say that it is thermophilic in the traditional sense, but at least is compatible with the thermal treatment time. It can reach 45 º C to excellent. Since the use of culture media containig a serum, it is not possible to go to higher temperatures, because we're going to cook than the average. In addition, the organism is highly resistant to gamma radiation. This is a unique phenomenon. It is also resistant to antibiotics, as aminoclycosides, despite high doses are certainly effective against them. They are extremely resistant to disinfection and lysis.

Bacteria are tiny single-celled microorganisms that reproduce by cell division.

Bacteria are small unicellular organisms found everywhere Iin the environment and generally live in harmony with the body. Specific types of bacterial infections have their own name, Stangl such, but most infections are not specific and occur after an accident or a weakened immune system.

Bacteria are important organisms of the disease and our ecosystem.Bacteria are very small, about 0.1 to 20 micrometers. There are two distinct groups f bacteria Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They differ in their cell walll composition and that the cause disease.The Gram-negative bacteria secrete toxins normallly, toxic substances that destroy the cells. Bacteria can also be grouped according to their shape: straight bars, round or curved spirochetes coconuts or comma-shaped vibrios. Most bacteria possess a cell wall, but unlike other cells, their genetic material is enclosed by a nucleus. The bacteria may be useful for nitrogen fixation and the breakdown of dead plants and animals in the ecosystem. Some bacteria can survive in adverse environments, bacteria have a tail spores.Some are known as the beating of flagella around the bacteria move forward.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

The Wheel History

The initial design for ceramics used in the most advanced technology known to mankind, the wheel has not stopped driving our civilization as a catalyst in a chemical reaction. We thought it would be a good idea to make a tour through the different stages of evolution of the wheel and see where it goes now.

Begining 
The researchers agreed that 3500 BC is the year he invented the wheel, which is more than an order of magnitude of an exact year. The place is Mesopotamia, the area now occupied by the war-torn Iraq. The first wheel for transport is about 3200 BC, with the purpose of passing cars Mesopotamia.

For the complete story, as shown here, the beginning of the rear wheel to the Paleolithic era (15,000 to 750,000 years).

So, people used logs to move heavy loads around. The biggest problem with this method of transport is that many of the rolls have been requested, and the treatment had to certify that the rollers remained faithful to the course. One theory of how this obstacle was overcome propose a platform or a sled, built in grills are installed, which prevents the rollers from slipping out from under the load. Use the two rollers, two grids of each coil, one front, one aft, and roll.

It took another 1500 years before our ancestors thought the next step in the evolution of the wheel spoke. Need to expedite the transport and the idea of ​​using less material because of this technological innovation. The Egyptians are credited with the first implementation of the spoked wheel of the model year 2000 BC, chariots. Reduced form of carving on both sides, but it was the Greeks, the first time in the street, or H-type of wheel.

The first tire iron around in cars are Celts in 1000 BC. The spoked wheel has remained largely unchanged until 1802, when GF Bauer filed a patent for wire tension spoke for the first time. This wire spoke consisted of a piece of wire passes through the rim of the wheel and secured at both ends of the cube. In the coming years, this wire spoke evolved round tension spoke bicycle we see today.

Another great invention that had the same thing with the thread tension was spoken of the tire, which was patented in 1845 by RW Thompson. His idea was reinforced in 1888 by John Dunlop, a Scottish veterinarian, who also patented. Thank you to the smooth ride, Dunlop tires replaced the hard rubber used by all the bikes at the time.

Car Wheels 
You just start talking about car wheels from 1885 Karl Benz Benz Patent Motorwagen. The tricycle used bicycle wheel as a child, they were equipped with hard rubber.

Speaking of rubber, the first people who have thought to use it in the car for purposes of André and Edouard Michelin, who later founded the famous tire manufacturer. In 1910, BF Goodrich Company invented longer than tires with the addition of carbon.

Overseas, Ford Model T wheel Artillery Wood, which was followed in 1926 and 1927 welded steel-wheels. Contrary to Karl Benz first vehicle, the car that "put America on wheels" were invented by Mr. Dunlop tires. But there was a significant difference between these tires and the ones we use today. Made of tires White rubber, self had a life expectancy of about 2000 miles. A tire lasted only 30 or 40 miles before repairs. Common problems include: tires that come off the wheel, punctures, and the tube is a hurry.

Paradoxically, the next step in the development of the flying saucer was the one that says more in common with the original solid model. Like so many other things in our history, the change resulted in a lower cost than the steel disc wheels have less to do. RIM could have rolled straight out of the strip of metal, and the same disc can be printed on the sheet in a single easy motion. Two components were welded or riveted together, and the result was one of the wheels, which was relatively light, stiff, durable non-life, easy to produce large quantities and, above all, cheaply produced.

Perhaps now would be a good time to talk about the difference between the rims and wheels. Although most people now refer to the wheels, especially alloy rims these, the term really means the outer edge of the wheel where the tire is mounted.

Returning to our story today, there are basically two types of wheels for use, alloy steel and automobiles, which have benefited from technological advances. As a result, large and heavy wheels of the car, the early days have become light, solid-ray equipment. It should be noted that, as the first rays of the solid wheel design oriented relatively early stages of humanity, so that in the 20th century.

Although we are not too technical about the differences between steel and aluminum wheels, we will say that it is easier and better conductors of heat. As a result, vehicles with improved alloy wheels, sports steering and handling and extend brake life. They are also more visually appealing, but that's another story. On the other hand, mags more expensive to manufacture than steel, which increases the overall price of the car.

The future of the Wheel 
Since the traditional wheel design is close to exhausting the possible development of more and more companies have argued that prototypes of the exotic in its place. Of these, Michelin is probably in the field of research over the last two innovative concepts, Tweel and Active Wheel System.

Tweel 
Announced in 2006, the Tweel becomes the first designs with a non-pneumatic solution rather than the traditional combination of tires and wheels. The running surface consists of a rubber bearing, which binds to the center for flexible radios. The flexible spokes are fused with a deformable wheel that absorbs shock and rebounds. Michelin says that even without the need for air in conventional tires, Tweel still offers the kind of comfort ride tires load capacity and resistance to road hazards.

Although it offers many advantages, the Tweel is overshadowed by a big problem: vibration at speeds over 50 mph (80 km / h), so only suitable for the construction and personal mobility vehicles.

Active Wheel systemThe concept is probably the most revolutionary of all, since it includes all the key components of the car in motion. Even if only for electric vehicles, the Active Wheel system houses the engine, suspension, gearbox and drive shaft.

History of Battery


The battery, which is really a cell is an electronic device that produces electricity through a chemical reaction. In a single battery cell, there is a negative electrode, electrolyte, which makes the ions, a separator, the ion conductor, and the positive electrode.

Chronology of the history of the battery

1748
- Benjamin Franklin first coined the term "battery" to describe a variety of charged glass plates.

1780-1786 - Luigi Galvani demonstrated what we now understand to be the basis of the electronic transmission of nerve impulses, and provided the cornerstone for future research inventors like Volta, to create a battery.

1800 Voltaic cell - Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile and discovered the first practical method for generating electricity. Constructed of alternating discs of zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard in brine between the metals, Arrows Voltic produced electricity. The Arc metal implement was used to transport electricity over long distances. Voltaic battery Alessandro Volta was the first "wet cell battery" that produced a reliable, stable flow of electricity.

1836 Daniell Cell
, Volta's battery could not deliver an electric current through a longer period. John F. English Daniell invented the Daniell cell that used two electrolytes: copper sulfate and zinc sulfate. Daniel cell lasted longer then the Volta cell or battery. The battery, which produced about 1.1 volts, was used to power items such as telegraphs, telephones and doorbells, remained popular in homes for over 100 years.

1839 Fuel Cell
- William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell that produces electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen.

1839-1842
- Inventors created improvements to batteries used liquid electrodes to produce electricity. Bunsen (1842) and Grove (1839) came up with the most successful.

1859 Rechargeable - French inventor, Gaston Plante developed the first practical storage lead-acid battery can be recharged (secondary battery). This type of battery is primarily used in cars today.

1866 Leclanché carbon-zinc-Cel
l - a French engineer, Georges Leclanché patented carbon-zinc batteries, wet cell called Leclanché. According to the History of the batteries: "George Leclanché original cell was assembled porous vase The positive electrode consisted of crushed manganese dioxide and carbon mixed into the negative terminal zinc finger of the cathode was packed into the pot, and the rod Carbon was added to operate the coin collector anode or zinc rod and the plate was immersed in a solution of ammonium chloride .... actuated by a fluid electrolyte, can easily inside through the porous cup and stay in touch with the cathode material. actuated by a fluid electrolyte, can easily inside through the porous cup and stay in contact with the cathode material.

"Georges Leclanche, and further improve the design by replacing ammonium chloride liquid electrolyte paste and invented a method of sealing the battery with the invention of the first dry cell, an improved design is now portable.

1881 - Judge Thiebaut patented the first battery with both the negative electrode and porous pot placed in a glass of zinc.

1881 - Carl Gassner invented the first commercial success of the dry cell battery (zinc-carbon cell).

1899 - Waldmar Jungner invented the first battery nickel cadmium rechargeable batteries.

1901 Alkaline - Thomas Alva Edison invented the alkaline battery. Thomas Edison had an iron alkaline battery anode material (-) and oxide cathode material nickelic (+).

1949 alkaline manganese batterie
s - Lew Urry developed a small alkaline battery in 1949. The inventor had worked with Eveready Battery Co. research laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline batteries last five to eight times as long as the zinc-carbon cells, their predecessors.

1954 solar cells - Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin invented the first solar battery. A solar battery converts the sun's energy into electricity. In 1954, Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin invented the first solar battery. The inventors created a series of several strips of silicon (each about the size of a razorblade), placed in sunlight, captured the free electrons and convert them into electricity. Bell Laboratories in New York announced the prototype manufacture of a new solar battery. Bell had funded the research. The first public service trial of Bell Solar Battery began with a telephone support system (Americus, Georgia) October 4, 1955.

1964 -
Duracell was formed.