Feature Post

Thursday, August 25, 2011


Previously, the TV equipment was based on an 1884 invention called the scanning disk patented by Paul Nipkow. Full of holes, large disc spun in front of an object while a photoelectric cell recorded changes in light. Depending on the power supply photoelectric sensor, a number of bulbs would glow or remain dark. Although mechanical Nipkow would not be able to acquire and deliver a clear, live-action image, most of the TV inventors still hoped to complete potential.

Not Philo Farnsworth. In 1921, the Mormons of 14 years had an idea while working at his father's farm in Idaho. Mowing hay in rows, Philo realized an electron beam can scan an image in horizontal lines, reproducing the image almost immediately. It will prove to be a crucial breakthrough.

But young Philo was not alone. At the same time, Russian immigrant Vladimir Zworykin also developed a camera that focused an image through a lens on a variety of photoelectric cells coating the end of a tube. The electrical image formed by the cells are scanned line by line by an electron beam, and transferred to a cathode ray tube.

Instead, the electron beam, Farnsworth dissector device for the images used for "anode finger" - a pencil-sized tube with a small opening at the top - to scan the image. Magnetic coils sprayed with electrons emitted from electrical image left to right and line by line over the hole, where they became electric. Zworykin and Philo devices is then delivered to the cathode ray tube power, which reconstruct the image scanning on a fluorescent surface.

Farnsworth applied for a patent for his image dissector in 1927. The development of the television system was plagued by a lack of money and the challenges to patent Farnsworth giant Broadcasting Corporation of America (RCA). In 1934, bought the British company British Gaumont communications license Farnsworth to make systems based on his creations. In 1939, the American company RCA once. The two companies had developed systems of their own television and recognized Farnsworth as a competitor. World War interrupted the development of television. When television became a regular event after the war, Farnsworth was not involved. Instead he spent his time trying to perfect the devices he had designed.

David Sarnoff, vice president of Radio-powerful United States, later hired Zworykin to ensure that RCA would control the technology of television. Sarnoff and Zworykin visited Farnsworth's lab messy, but the entrepreneur to the inventor of Mormon was making fun of the sale of the company - Farnsworth and services - to RCA for a lousy $ 100,000. So Sarnoff pride downplayed Philo's innovations, saying: "There is nothing here, we will need."

In 1934, RCA demonstrated tube "iconoscope" image dissector room very similar to Farnsworth. RCA claimed that Zworykin was based on trying to patent the device in 1923 - even though Russia has used the old design Nipkow spinning disk until after he visited the laboratory of Philo.

The patent war had really begun - and Phil, as Farnsworth adults preferred to be called, was in a dilemma. He could not license inventions, while the case was in court, and he has struggled with its lenders on the control and manage its own affairs. Farnsworth men "gang laboratory" faithful were fired and rehired several times during its economic fluctuations, but retained the confidence of Phil. When the financial Farnsworth refused his request for a radio studio, the inventor and a partner built a studio on your own.

Meanwhile, back at RCA, Sarnoff had spent more than $ 10 million in a major R & D efforts at the Expo TV 1939 New York World, Sarnoff announced the launch of commercial television - even if the camera was RCA insufficient and that the company had a single patent on television. Later that year, the company was forced to pay royalties to Farnsworth Radio and Television.

With World War I started, Farnsworth realized that the future of commercial television was in the hands of entrepreneurs - hard work is not a lone inventor in his lab. Its patent expires, Phil grew depressed, drunk and addiction to painkillers. In 1949, Farnsworth reluctantly agreed to sell radio and television.

Philo T. Farnsworth has always been an outsider, a bright flaming star at the beginning of a new electronic age. His adventure with the electron was a private affair, a celebration of the spirit of the lone inventor.

Monday, August 22, 2011

The Peanut Butter History

Peanut butter was invented and reinvented many times throughout history. Peanuts were known as 950 BC, and is native to South America. The ancient Incas used peanuts and were known for having a pasty substance. As a culture of peanuts emigrated from South America to Africa by early explorers and then traveled by trade in Spain, which then traded products to the American colonies. Harvesting the first commercial peanut was cultivated in Virginia in the early and mid-1840s and in North Carolina beginning around the 1818th

According to Corn Products Company, Dr. Ambrose Straub of St. Louis patented peanut butter-maker in 1903 and some unknown doctor invented peanut butter in 1890.

Dr. John Harvey Kellogg patented "prepares Nut Meal" in 1895 and used peanuts. Kellogg was the patient in his peanut butter Battle Creek Sanatorium. Joseph Lambert, has worked for Dr. Kellogg, and began to sell their hand peanut grinder in 1896. Almeeta Lambert published the first nut cookbook, "The complete guide to cooking Nut" in 1899.

In 1914, many companies that make peanut butter.

Joseph L. Rose field has invented the process of churning, which made it a smooth peanut butter smooth. In 1928, Rose Field license his invention Pond Society, producers of Peter Pan peanut butter. In 1932, Rose, the field began to make its own brand called Skippy peanut butter that contains crunchy peanut butter style.

Agricultural chemist George Washington Carver discovered 300 uses for peanuts and hundreds more uses for soybeans, pecans and sweet potatoes. He started popularizing uses peanut products including peanut butter, paper, ink, and oil began in 1880. The most famous of Carver search took place after his arrival in Tuskeegee in 1896. But Carver does not have peanut butter patent because he believed the food were all gifts from God. In 1880, the date which precedes all inventors above, except of course for the Incas, who was the first. It was Carver who made peanuts a major crop in South America in the early 1900-century.

After all, peanut butter is just roasted peanuts into a paste. Half of all edible peanuts produced in the United States are used to make peanut butter and peanut spreads.

Saturday, August 20, 2011



The ENIAC was the first of a versatile machine that could be used in various fields, such as weather forecasting, astronomy, etc.. It 'was designed for military purposes and was built in 1945 by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School in America. In 1948, because of the difficulty in programming the ENIAC was changed for the registration of a computer program for the advice of Dr. John von Neumann. The disadvantages of the machine, the more irritating is that almost every day, several tubes burned half the time and make functional the day. Years, cheaper and faster computers, have begun to build, and the ENIAC was fully shutted in 1955.


CSIRAC become Australia's first digital computer, and also the first computer outside the United States and Great Britain. It was designed by Trevor Pearcey and Maston Beard in 1949. It was 1000 times faster than the best mechanical calculators at that time and also the first computer in the world that can play digital music.


EDSAC was built by Professor Sir Maurice Wilkes of Cambridge University, England in 1949. The first video game, OXO, was written for EDSAC. 9 years later at the same university, EDSAC 2 was suggested.


Binac was designed for Northrop Aircraft Company for use in an application in the air in 1949. It was the first product of the Eckert-Mauchly Corporation Computer. Binaca ran with the help of two independent computer all sides. However, it was a clumsy and Binaca was never used for its primary purpose.


EDVAC was designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Ecket and built at the Moore School at the University of Pennsylvania in the United States. It was designed for military purposes and which came into use in 1951. The main objective of the design was to address the weaknesses that have emerged in the ENIAC. Instead of ENIAC, EDVAC could work eight hours a day, without a fault. Ultimately, after BRLESC stepped forward and take his place, was low in 1962 EDVAC shutter.


SEAC has been built in America in 1950. It 'was built by the National Bureau of Arts booth interim pending machine that uses powerful computers to be completed.


UNIVAC computers were first designed by John Mauchly and J. Eckert Prespes and the first UNIVAC computer was completed in 1951 by a group called the Division of Remington Rand Univac. While all other than its creators believed that mass production of computers would be useless, UNIVAC I was advanced for trade. The UNIVAC I, the group built a series of machines begins with UNIVAC UNIVAC II and III, which are updated on the UNIVAC I, UNIVAC 9000 series.


ILLIAC series, due to their speed of supercomputers have been considered at the time. All computers in this series was built at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. These computers, and the time they were built are; ORDVAC (1951), ILLIAC I (1952), ILLIAC II (1962), ILLIAC III (1966), ILLIAC IV (1976), ILLIAC V (Cesar) (1988), ILLIAC VI (under construction) and the Trusted ILLIAC (2006).


Manic first computer was built by Nicholas Metropolis in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in 1952. The difference between this machine, all other computers was that he could not exchange programs with other computers. There were two versions of The Maniac, he's crazy II (1957), and manic III (1964).

JOHNNIAC built the Rand Corporation in 1953. It 'was constantly used in 1953-1966, which has the longest life among the early computers.


BRLESC which was built by the Ballistic Research Laboratory U.S. Army in 1962. It was designed to take the place of the EDVAC. That has been updated with BRELESC II in 1971.

Friday, August 19, 2011

The invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973

The Internet is a worldwide network of thousands of computers and computer networks. This is a public effort, and voluntary cooperation between institutions and is not related owned or operated by a single organization. The Internet and Transmission Control Protocols were initially developed in 1973 by the American Vinton Cerf, a computer scientist in a project sponsored by the Ministry of Defence US Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) and directed by the American engineer Robert Kahn.

Internet began to ARPA computer network (ARPANET), which refers to computer networks at several universities and research institutes in the United States. The World Wide Web was developed in 1989, English computer scientist Timothy Berners-Lee, the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).

"The design of the Internet was made in 1973 and published in 1974, there were some 10 years of hard work, resulting in the spread of the Internet in 1983 Before that, a number of demonstrations of the technology has -.. as the first three interconnection network demonstrated in November 1977 linking SATNET, PRNet ARPANET and a path leading from Menlo Park, CA, University College London and return to the USC / ISI in Marina del Rey, CA .. "- Vinton Cerf says the timing:

The interconnection of computer networks on the Internet that enables connected machines to communicate directly. The term commonly refers, in particular, the global interconnection of government, education and information networks business, which is available to the public. Even the smallest of the internets, usually for a private organization, called an intranet.

Internet technology is a primitive precursor to the information superhighway, the theoretical goal of computer communications to provide schools, libraries, businesses and homes in order to ensure universal access to information that educates, informs and entertains. In early 1996 the Internet to each other for more than 25 million computers in over 180 countries and is growing significantly in price.

How Internet Work

Internet is formed by connecting the local network with dedicated computers on each network are known as gateways. Gateway connections made through various communication channels, including telephone lines, fiber optic and radio links. Networks can be added by connecting to new gateways. Information to be delivered to a remote machine is labeled with the computer address of the machine.

Different types of address formats used by various departments such as the Internet (see Internet address). Format is known as dotted decimal, for example: Another format describes the name of the destination computer and other routing information, such as "machine.dept.univ.edu." Suffix at the end of the Internet address is the type of organization that owns the particular network, for example, education (. Edu), military sites (. Mil), government offices (. Gov), and nonprofit organizations (. org). Networking outside the U.S. States uses the suffix to indicate the country, for example (. CA) for Canada.

Once processed, the information leaves your home network through a gateway. That goes door to door until it reaches the local network that contains the target machine. Internets have no central control, ie not just computer directs the flow of information. This differentiates it from other internets of online services such as CompuServe, America Online and Microsoft Network.

Internet Protocol

Internet Protocol is the basic software to control the Internet. This protocol defines as the path to the gateway machines to send information on the host computer. Another protocol, Transmission Control Protocol, to see if the data has reached the target computer, otherwise, the data can be sent back.

Even if the entire computer is still in its infancy, has dramatically changed the world, bridging the barriers of time and distance, through which people can share information and work together. Evolution towards the information superhighway continues at an accelerated pace. The available content is growing rapidly, and then it is easier to find information on the Internet. New applications for secure transactions and providing new opportunities for trade. Speed ​​data transfer technology, which allows the direct transfer of on-demand entertainment. The television can be replaced by unicast, where every house is receiving a signal tailored to what the residents want to see when they want to see.

Willis Carrier Invented Air Conditioning

If someone made a list of inventions every day that Americans simply could not live without, Willis Carrier invention can have at the top. Without the invention of the Carrier, cinemas, sports arenas and workplaces would be much less comfortable, and how sleep during the nights of summer? If you have not guessed, Carrier invented air conditioning.

Inventor Willis Carrier was an engineer on the east coast (not far south as you might expect), who began working in the company of heat. In 1902, Carrier has been given the task of reducing the moisture in the press, where the intense heat was the cause inks to run and bleed.

While attempts to create cooling systems had been tried many times before, none was very successful. But Carrier was able to resolve the problem by inventing a mechanical humidity controller was air through a filter more coils containing refrigerant (the same basic design used in the air today.)

The word soon spread of Willis Carrier's invention, and the number of commercial customers are interested in technology has grown. Carrier continued to improve his invention, and in 1915 he founded the carrier Engineering Corporation (also a leading manufacturer of refrigeration).

Growing popularity of air conditioning - Making the way in which the integration of theaters, department stores and other businesses. By the end of World War II, the air conditioners were still found their way into many American homes.

Rape Straw Anti-Date

The rape drugs are medicines that can make a person unconscious when others use them. The two most common drugs used with ketamine acid and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid or GHB. The unusual weapons were invented in Israel, Fernando and Michael Patolsky Ioffe, able to detect these two rape drugs, more drugs will soon be added detection capabilities of straw as Rohypnol ruffies acad. Straw works quickly and can be used again, perhaps until the date rape drug is detected. Inventors still looking for investors to develop methods for mass production of cheap straw.

According to the co-inventor, Fernando Patolsky, a chemistry professor at the University of Tel Aviv, the straw with a small sample of your drink and mixed with a test solution, which causes a chemical reaction that makes the solution cloudy or colored, depending on the drug.

Statistics sad that one in six women are sexually during her life, so hopefully, this invention helps to keep more women in the safe.

Thursday, August 18, 2011

The History of Printing

The first books printed in date known is the "Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 CE. However, it is suspected that book printing may have occurred much earlier.

Before Gutenberg, the press was limited in the number of issues and made almost entirely decorative, which is used for photos and drawings. The printing equipment was carved in wood, stone and metal, rolled with ink or paint and transferred by pressure of parchment or vellum. The books were copied mainly by the hands of members of religious orders.

Johannes Gutenberg
Johannes Gutenberg was a German craftsman and inventor. Gutenberg is best known for the Gutenberg press, printing to innovative uses of movable type. Level was maintained until the 20th century. Gutenberg printed less.

Printing processes

Ottmar Mergenthaler Linotype

Invention, Ottmar Mergenthaler Linotype typesetting machine in 1886, is regarded as the greatest advance in printing since the development of movable type 400 years earlier.


Teletypesetter, apparatus for setting type by telegraph developed by FE Gannett of Rochester, New York, WW Morey of East Orange, New Jersey, and Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company, Chicago, Illinois, the first demo of Walter Morey "Teletypesetter" took held in Rochester, New York in 1928.


Louis Marius Moyroud and Rene Alphonse Higonnet developed the first practical camera configuration of the machine. The camera pans type that uses a strobe light and a series of optical character for projects of a rotating disc onto photographic paper.

Serigraphy or screen printing

In 1907, Samuel Simon of Manchester England granted a patent on the process of using silk as a screenshot. The use of materials other than silk-screen printing has a long history, beginning with the ancient art of stencil used by the Egyptians and Greeks as 2500 BC A few years after Simon patents, developed Worth John Pils San Francisco is a multi-color screen printing known as screen printing. The term "screen" comes from the Latin word "Seri" (silk) and the Greek word "graphein" (to write or draw).

Monday, August 15, 2011

A Little History About Ohm

George Simon Ohm was a German physicist born in Erlangen, Bavaria, March 16, 1787. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the cell, newly invented electricity, invented by Alessandro Volta Italian Conte. The use of computer of their own creation, Ohm found that the current flowing in a wire is proportional to its cross section and inversely proportional to its length. Using the results of their experiments, Georg Simon Ohm was able to define the fundamental relationship between voltage, current and resistance. These relationships are of such fundamental importance that represent the true beginning of electrical circuit analysis. Unfortunately, when Ohm published his discovery in 1827, his ideas were rejected by their peers. Ohm was forced to resign from his teaching job in high school and lived in poverty and shame. However, his research award won support outside Germany.

In 1849 Georg Simon Ohm finally recognized for his efforts to be appointed professor at the University of Munich.

Invention Of The Transistor By John Bardeen, Walter Brattain And William Shockley In 1947

Almost every piece of equipment that stores, transmits, displays or manipulates information to his heart full of electronics silicon chip. These chips of each house of thousands, even millions of transistors.

The history of the transistor 1800 begins a dramatic scientific discoveries, scientists such as Maxwell, Hertz, Faraday, Edison and electricity could be harnessed for human use. Inventors such as Braun, Marconi, Fleming and DeForest to apply the information for the development of electrical equipment such as radio.

Their work was created by Bell Labs, whose scientists challenge was to use this information to create practical and useful electronic devices for communication. Teams of Bell Labs scientists, such as Shockley, Brattain, Bardeen, and many others .-- responded to this challenge and came up with the information age. They stood on the shoulders of great inventors, to produce 19 century greatest invention of our time: the transistor.

The transistor was invented in 1947 at Bell Labs by a team led by physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain and William Shockley. Initially, the team has not been high on the list of possible applications of this little device. This is not surprising that the first computers were built in 1940 and 1950, some scientists have seen in them the seed of a technology that, in just a few decades to penetrate almost all spheres of human life. Before the digital explosion, the transistors are a vital part of improving the existing analog systems, such as radios and stereos.

When it was put in computers, however, the transistor has become an integral part of the dotcom boom. They are also capable of mass-produced by millions sliver of silicon semiconductor chips. And 'this almost unlimited capacity to integrate on-chip transistors, which has fueled the information age. Today, these chips are not only part of the computer. They are also important in many devices such as cameras, cell phones, copiers, jumbo jets, modern cars, manufacturing equipment, electronic scoreboards, video and games. Without the transistor would not have the Internet and space travel.

Years after its creation, the transistor replaced the large, fragile vacuum tubes that had been used to enhance and change the signals. The transistor became the building block of all modern electronics and the foundation for microchip and computer technology.

Thursday, August 4, 2011

Quartz watch

(1927, W.A. Marrison and J.W. Horton)

The original quartz clock, the invention of J.W. Horton and Warren A. Marrison, took up the better part of a small room. Today, quartz clocks are built into calculators and PC, and quartz watches are everywhere. They are far and away the most popular timekeepers. Depending on the size, shape, and vibration frequency of its crystal, a quartz timepiece can keep time accurately to about one second every ten years.

Before the innovation of the quartz clock, a second had been defined as 1 86,400 of a twenty four hour period -- that is, of the average duration of one rotation of the Earth. The quartz clock itself did not provide a new definition of the second, but its precision helped scientists identify irregularities in the Earth's rotation that showed our planet was not a reliable baseline for timekeeping. 

The reasons that quartz clocks did not redefine the second is that the oscillations, or vibrations, of quartz crystals begin to drift over a long period. This drifting can be due to temperature changes, impurities in the quartz, or the cumulative effects of the vibrations. The new second would have to wait for the visual aspect of the atomic clock.

Quartz mechanicses are highly precise because a quartz crystal vibrates thousands or millions of times a second when exposed to alternating electric fields. Inside a quartz watch, electric current from the battery causes the quartz crystal to vibrate. A microprocessor divides down the high frequency to a much slower electric pulse that is transmitted to the coil. The current pulsating through the coil activates a tiny magnet, which switches rapidly backward and forward in time with the pulse. As the magnet switches backward and forward, it turns a small pinion that controls the watch's gear train, completing the conversion of the crystal's vibration to mechanical movement.

Compact Disc

A CD (cd) is a popular form of digital storage media used for computer files, pictures, and music. The plastic disc is read and written to by a laser in a CD drive. It comes in several varieties including CD ROM, CD R, and CD-RW

James Russell invented the CD in 1965. James Russell was granted a total of 22 patents for various elements of his compact disc system. However, the CD did not get popular until it was mass manufactured by Philips in 1980.