Feature Post

Monday, October 31, 2011

Time Machine

It is not accidental configuration section using a laser to show turbulent Chaotic Micro-Flow has been used in connection with time travel. The plant has some interesting behaviors that can be seen easily. Examine the configuration means that some of the following:
Rise of critical radius r0, the YV distance, a rotation of the laser beam YU-> Z-> W-> B

For a total scattering angle DFE, the rotational movement of the laser beam results in an angular frequency / speed equal to ω = 2 * π / T. This in turn leads to a linear velocity v = ω * r, to the point of the laser beam, which is done remotely YV (as vectors of UT, ZA, WX and British Columbia).

Since V is a linear function of r, it follows that the R0 and thus a specific YV, where the linear velocity should be equal to c = 3 * 108m / s. This is, of course, during the same at r0. Assuming a relatively low T, as the speed of 10000 rpm, which is the fastest speed of the motor car, we have T = 3 / 500

Solving the equation c = v = ω * r to r, we obtain R0 ~ 286478.8m. Since r0/YV = tan (DFE / 2), we obtain: YV = r0/tan (DFE / 2), for R0 ~ 286478.8m and DFE / 2 = π / 9 gives: ~ YV 787094.3m

What does all this: If we were to set this little thing with a laser mirror angle θ = π equal to * 2.9 For example, while at a distance of 787 km ~ YV, where the radius of the scan will be approximately 286 , 5 km ~ r0, we find a 2D singular space-time [1] (check one) [2]. To create a singularity in 3D, it is necessary to generalize the three dimensions, can be done at least two ways:

Mechanical

A mechanical time machine based on the above principle can be realized as a mechanism of rotation, with two rotating rings (green), anchored in AB and CD:
Gyro Time Machine
To create a singularity at E, the linear velocity must be at least equal to c. As the linear velocity EH is the sum of its components EC and EC, we have: EF = EG + c. Since both mechanical rings are (almost) the same diameter, we have r * sqrt (ω12 ω22 +) = c, from which we obtain the basic equation of the time machine with n = 2 ring [4 ]:


The basic equation for the free time machine two rings

For a speed of 10000 rpm for two rings, we obtain r ~ 202.5 km.

Optical

A time machine optics based on the principle above can be done again as a gyro mechanism, but this time instead of mechanical rings, we can turn the laser beam. How many laser beams? To find out, we remember that each point on the surface of a sphere can be described by its Euler angles (α, β, γ). In addition, if a point A is rotated to a position E of Euler angles (α, β, γ), it can be shown that there are angles (a, b, c) such that the following list of operations of rotation of the point again that E [5]:

First rotation by angle a around the z axis

2. Turn the angle b around the new x-axis.

3. C angle of rotation around the z axis of the press.

Note that there are only two axes involved in the whole cycle using the angles (a, b, c). Therefore, we only need two rotating laser beams. Please note that this is the same as one of the laser beam and the two mirrors! Low reasonable inspection shows that we can use the following installation, as shown below [6]:

Time Machine with a laser gyroscope and two mirrors

Analysis

Choose a coordinate system in a grid format. It is shown, then the inclination angle θ and φ the azimuth. θ be realized in the CD tray runs C and φ is built around the fourth bar B (green ellipses).

For this configuration, then, if the rotational speeds of the two mirrors, JH and GF have periods T1 and T2, then the equations for the two angles versus time t is:

1. θ (t) = ω1 * s = 2 * π * t/T1

Second φ (t) = ω2 t = 2 * π * T/T2

To create a 3D singularity, then the tip of the laser beam must have a linear velocity v satisfies the fundamental equation (above). And then the phasor describing the motion of the laser beam in 3-space as a function of time t is given by:
Phasor optical time machine

When this laser configuration is spinning fast enough, you get the (spherical) 3D radius r0 of the critical singularity. Passing some of the values, if the speed is 10000 rpm and 30000rpm, then T1 = 60 / 10000, and T2 = 60 / 30000, which is obtained r0 ~ 90.6 km.

Time Dilation

Time for an observer inside the setup is relativistically expanded and is given as:

t '= t * γ = t / sqrt (1 - (v / c) 2)

where γ is the Lorentz factor now. Note that v = r * sqrt (ω12 ω22 +), where r is the distance from the observer B, and therefore the Lorentz factor becomes:
Lorentz factor of the optical machine T1 and T2 time

Follow the chart maple relativistic time dilation in the setup:
Relativistic time dilation machine time to end, with 0 ≤ ≤ 10000/60 f1, f2 = f1 * 3 and 0 ≤ r ≤ 100 km

For example, at a distance of 90 km with a speed of 10000rpm and 30000rpm, the Lorentz factor γ ~ 8.75. This means that the observer is inside the machine, at this distance from the center, moving with a speed 8.75 times faster than the time when an outside observer. This means that the observer moves toward the future

Friday, October 28, 2011

The Calendar

The aim of the calendar is the past or future, to show how many days until a certain event occurs during harvest or a religious festival, or the time that something important has happened. The first calendar must have been strongly influenced by the geographical situation of the people who made them. In cold countries, the concept of the year was determined by the seasons, specifically in the late winter. But in hot countries, where the seasons are less marked, the Moon has become the basic unit to calculate the time of an old Jewish book says that "the moon was set for counting day."

Most of the oldest calendars were lunar calendars, based on the time interval from one new moon to another, called a lunation. But even in hot weather there are annual events that do not pay attention to the phases of the moon. In some areas, it was a rainy season in Egypt was the annual flooding of the Nile. The calendar had to account for these annual events as well.
History of the Egyptian calendar
Egyptian year coincided exactly under the sun only once in 1460 years

The ancient Egyptians used a calendar with 12 months of 30 days each, totaling 360 days a year. Around 4000 BC they added five extra days at the end of each year to make it more in line with the sun years.1 These five days became a festival because it was considered unlucky to work during this period.

The Egyptians had calculated that the solar year was actually closer to 3651 / 4 days, but instead of that day, a jump every four years because of the breaking day (as we do now), left fourth day accumulates. When in 1460 calendar year, or four periods of 365 years, 1461 years, Egypt had passed. This means that over the years, the Egyptian months fell to synchronize the seasons, so in the summer months at the end he fell in the winter. Only 1460 years after the calendar year at the same time, just the calendar year.

In addition to the calendar of civic activities, the Egyptians also had a religious calendar based on lunar cycles and 291/2-day was closely linked to agricultural cycles and movements of the stars.

History of the Roman (Julian) Calendar
The Romans were superstitious than even numbers were unlucky, so that their months were 29 or 31 long days

When Rome emerged as a world power, was the difficulty of making a calendar well known, but the Romans complicated their lives because of their superstition that even numbers were unlucky. Thus, their months were 29 or 31 long days, except February, which was 28 days. But four months of 31 days, seven months and 29 days a month of 28 days added to only 355 days. Therefore, the Romans invented an extra month called Mercedonius 22 or 23 days. It was added every two years.

Even with Mercedonius, the Roman calendar eventually became as Julius Caesar, advised by the astronomer Sosigenes, ordered a thorough reform. 46 BC was 445 days long by imperial decree, the calendar back in step with the seasons. Then, the solar year (with a value of 365 days and 6 hours) was the basis of the calendar. Months are 30 or 31 days long, and to care for six hours, every four years there was a year of 366 days. Moreover, Caesar decreed the year began with the first of January, not the vernal equinox in late March.

This calendar was the Julian calendar named after Julius Caesar, and continues to be used by Eastern Orthodox churches for holiday calculations to date. But despite the correction, the Julian calendar still 111 / 2 minutes longer than the actual solar year, and after several centuries, added another 111 / 2 minutes until.

The Gregorian Calendar
The Julian calendar is deleted

In the 15th century, the Julian calendar had moved behind the solar calendar for about a week, so that the spring equinox was falling around March 12 instead of around March 20. Pope Sixtus IV (who reigned from 1471 to 1484) decided that a further reform was necessary and called the German astronomer Regiomontanus to Rome for advice. Regiomontanus came in 1475, but unfortunately died soon after, and the Pope reform plans died with him.

Then in 1545, the Council of Trent authorized Pope Paul III to reform the calendar once again. Most of the mathematical and astronomical work was done by Father Christopher Clavius, SJ The immediate correction, advised by Father Clavius ​​and ordered by Pope Gregory XIII, was that Thursday, October 4, 1582, should be the last day the Julian calendar. The next day would be Friday, October 15. For accuracy at long range, a formula was proposed by the Vatican librarian Aloysius Giglio was adopted: every fourth year is a leap year unless it is a century, 1700 years or the 1800th year of the century can be leap years if divisible by 400 (eg 1600 and 2000). This rule eliminates three leap years in four centuries, making the calendar sufficiently precise.

Despite the revised rule for leap years is a calendar year average is still about 26 seconds longer than the orbital period of the Earth. But the difference is 3323 years to build up one day.

History of the lunar calendar
Lunar calendar is based on ancient Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks and Jews

During the ancient lunar calendar is better to estimate the solar calendar year based on 19 years, 7 of these 19 years to 13 months. Period included a total of 235 months. Still in use lunation value of 291 / 2 days, this made a total of 6.9321 / 2 days and 19 solar years added up to 6,939.7 days, the difference in just one week per period, and about five weeks per century.

Up to 19 years, needed adjustment, but became the basis of the calendar, the ancient Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks and Jews. The calendar itself was used by the Arabs, but Muhammad later forbade shifting from 12 months to 13 months, so that the Islamic calendar is a month now about 354 days. As a result, the month of Islamic calendar, as well as Muslim religious festival, wandering in all seasons of the year.

Inventor of the Modern Computer

Konrad Zuse (1910-1995) was a civil engineer for the Henschel Aircraft Company in Berlin, Germany at the beginning of World War II. Konrad Zuse earned the unofficial title of "inventor of the modern computer" for his series of automatic calculators, which he invented to help with his long engineering calculations. Zuse has modestly refused the title of the new inventions praise many of his contemporaries and successors, to be equally if not more important than his.

One of the most difficult to make a calculation is large with a slide rule or mechanical calculator is keeping track of all intermediate results and use them to their rightful place in the later stages of the calculation. Konrad Zuse tried to overcome this difficulty. He realized that a self-calculator would require three basic elements: control, memory, and a calculator for math.

In 1936, Zuse made a mechanical calculator called the Z1, the computer binary. Zuse used it to explore several groundbreaking technologies in calculator development: floating-point arithmetic, high-capacity memory and modules or relays operating on the yes / no principle. Zuse ideas, not fully implemented in the Z1, succeeded more with each Z prototype

In 1939, Zuse completed Z2, the first fully functioning electro-mechanical computer.

Konrad Zuse Z3, built in 1941, and recycled materials donated by university staff and students. This was the world's first electronic, fully programmable digital computer based on a binary floating-point number and switching system. Zuse used old movie film to save his programs and data Z3 instead of using paper tape or punched cards. The paper was a shortage in Germany during the war.

According to "The Life and Work of Konrad Zuse"

In 1941, the Z3 contains almost all the features of a modern computer as defined by John von Neumann and his colleagues in 1946. The only exception was the ability to store the program in data memory. Konrad Zuse did not implement this feature in the Z3, for his word memory 64 is too small for this mode of operation. Due to the fact that he wanted to calculate thousands of instructions in a meaningful order, which makes the memory used to store the values ​​or numbers.

Block structure Z3 is very similar to a modern computer. Z3 consisted of separate units, such as a punched tape reader, control unit, floating point arithmetic units, and input / output.

Konrad Zuse wrote the first algorithmic programming language called "Plankalkül 'in 1946, he used to program its computers. He wrote first in the world of chess with the program Plankalkül.

Zuse was unable to convince the Nazi government to support their work in a computer-based valves. The Germans thought they were about to win the war and was not considered necessary to support new research.

The Z1 through Z3 models were destroyed during the war with Apparatebau Zuse, the manufacturer of computer Zuse was formed in 1940. Zuse went to Zurich to complete his work on the Z4, the smuggling of Germany, the Z4 in a military truck, who hid in the stalls on the way to Zurich, Switzerland. The completed and installed the Z4, Division of Applied Mathematics Institute of the ETH Zurich in the use of it until 1955. The Z4 had a mechanical memory with a capacity of 1,024 words and several card readers. Zuse had no use moving images to store programs, you can now use punch cards. The Z4 had punches and various facilities to allow flexible scheduling, including address translation and conditional branching. In 1949 he returned to Germany to form a second company called Zuse KG to build and market their designs. Models Zuse was rebuilt in 1960 in the Z3 and Z1 in 1984.

Liquid Crystal Display Invention

James Fergason holds over 125 U.S. patents in the technology of liquid crystals, including the first practical use of liquid crystals. He is perhaps best known for the discovery of the twisted nematic field, which led to today's liquid crystal display (LCD).

Fergason was born in Wakenda, Missouri in 1934. He received a BS in Physics from the University of Missouri in 1956, and took a research position at Westinghouse Research Laboratories in Pennsylvania next year. There he organized the first American research team for the study of liquid crystals (1957).

Many substances emit light when electrified, but the liquid crystals are the ones that reflect light when a current passes through them. These crystals were discovered in Germany in the 1880s, but it was not until 1950 that physicists began to consider requests for them, Fergason was the head of the field. In the decade of 1960, as associate director of the Institute of Kent State University Liquid Crystal Fergason was developing an LCD device based on the detection of breast cancer when he made the discovery that became the basis of their greatest invention (1967).

Liquid crystal displays, then the development of laboratories in competition for the voltage applied to the "dynamic scattering mode", which consumes too much power to poor results. Fergason used the discovery of '"effect twisted nematic field" of liquid crystals, to be channeled through the existing crystals in an efficient manner, which shows that if a good contrast and a long life with minimum power (1969). In a typical display, liquid crystal is compressed two thin layers of glass, which is relevant in the design of segmented electrodes invisible bars, which together form the figures. When power is applied to the electrodes on the right, the crystalline material reflects ambient light, creating a different reading of the unelectrified, and so unreflective, surrounding areas.

Fergason has received his first patent (# 3,114,836) in 1963 for his use of cholesteric liquid crystals for temperature sensing applications, the first liquid crystal practicing the invention. This was followed by his first patent for an LCD (# 3410999) in 1968, and a "twist nematic LCD cell" (# 3627408) in 1971. By then he had founded a company to manufacture ILIXCO poster (1970). Fergason first major client was held in Switzerland Gruen Watch. In 1977, most LCD LED digital clocks appears fresh and raw (LED). Since then, the LCD screen has been redone almost all types of display information, including calculators screens industrial, scientific and medical, as well as computers, video games and other electronic products.

All the while, Fergason has remained the leader in its field. He now works in miniature, and passive displays, augmented reality, and safety equipment. For example, Shields, president, Optical, Ltd. is located in Silicon Valley, Fergason was created and patented glasses that the liquid crystal becomes opaque as soon as possible (in 1 / 20, 000 of a second) the impact of any intense radiation, protecting the user's eyes to laser light. Optical Shields' panels Varilite Vision, "the company has made Finalist in the 1992 Discover Awards.

So far, James Fergason has won more than 125 U.S. patents and more than 500 foreign patents (more than 40 countries) for his work --- and also many rewards. Recently (1998), was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.

Thursday, October 27, 2011

Inventor of Laser

Gordon Gould was born in New York in 1920. As a child he loved Thomas A. Edison and other inventors, with the encouragement of his mother mechanical mind. Later, Gould would even conceive and design one of the most important inventions in the 20th century: the laser.

In 1957, Gould was working on a doctorate in physics at Columbia University, where research in physics was booming. Among the other was Charles Townes, inventor of the maser (1951), teaching there. Gould, whose previous specialty was classical optics, doing research in microwave spectroscopy. One Saturday evening, Gould inspired "in a flash" with a revolutionary idea. "Lasers" "light amplification by stimulated radiation," or

A wave light amplifier would be much more powerful than a maser (which amplifies the microwave), since each photon of light of a hundred thousand times the energy of a photon of microwave radio. At the end of this weekend, Gould had designed a device that could predict the heat of a substance at the temperature of the sun in a millionth of a second.

Fearing competition, Gould left his doctorate in order to get his invention into production quickly. He spent 1958 refining and improving its model, but has not applied for a patent until 1959, believing they had to build a prototype before the presentation. Unfortunately, this resulted in a 20-year legal battle, Gould finally won in 1977 when the first laser of its patents were issued.

Meanwhile, laser technology, Gould was already used in many practical applications, including welding, examination and surgery. But he had not been idle during this time. As a professor at the Polytechnic Institute of New York (1967-1973), Gould founded the research lab lasers and a new department. In 1973, Gould co-founded an optical communications company, where he obtained another patent, before retiring in 1985.

Inventor of Television

I've never heard of Vladimir K. Zworykin? What about John Logie Baird? Or maybe you know the name of Paul Nipkow? If not, what about Charles Francis Jenkins? No? So you've probably heard of Philo T. Farnsworth!

Who are these people? All are entitled to the title of "father of television". What, if any, is the rightful owner, however, this nickname?

The creation of television, one of the most important inventions of the 20th century, with roots firmly planted in the 19th century. That was a logical extension of the technology of telegraphy and photography. Since the 19th century, inventors have been filing patents on devices that allow the transmission of moving images to the child.

Almost all the technologies that shows live images depends on a phenomenon called persistence of vision. If the human eye is presented with a series of still images very quickly, faster than about 10 per second, but do not see them as individual images, but a coherent picture. A film camera uses a long strip of film to take the picture after picture of a scene that captures every movement in the series of images. As these parts using a projector, it gives the viewer the illusion of a scene of continuous movement.

Inventors who want to transmit moving images electronically would have to find a way to do something similar to capture the image after the image and sends them down the wire to be reconstructed for display in another place.

Mechanical Television


A German, Dr. Paul Nipkow, built the first machine brutal to do in 1884. Nipkow camera device is based on a rotating disk with 24 small holes in it. The holes were arranged in a spiral so that the disc was rotated by one, would be an exploration area which focuses the image on the disc with a lens. On the other side of the disc was a light-sensitive photocell to generate an electrical signal when he was beaten for the light that passes through the holes. In this way, the image is converted into an electrical signal. Every time the disk rotates one full turn, a different image would be sent on the wire.

Receiving element Nipkow worked in the back of his camera. Instead of a photo cell, there was a neon lamp. Engineering neon lamp varies with the signal from the camera and the light passes through another rotating disk, synchronized with the first, then the other side of the disk image would be blurred form.

There were many problems with Nipkow's invention, and never out of the laboratory: For one thing the neon bulb does not generate enough light to make a useful image. When a bright light bulb became available in 1917, other inventors began to have an interest in the work of Nipkow. In America, Charles Francis Jenkins began to build a system using a variation of the rotation of the disks designed by Nipkow. In England, an inventor named John Logie Baird began experimenting with a similar system.

Baird was 34 when he began building his "TV" system. Working on a tight budget, he built his first device with the objects found in the attic where it was experimentation. An old tea box was used to support the electric motor that resulted from the disks. The discs have been reduced from cardboard. Other parts were mounted on pieces of scrap wood. The goal came from an old bicycle lamp. Colle, sealing and son held the device together.

Surprisingly, the system of capital was able to produce a small flick of the image. In 1926, Baird demonstrated a more refined version of its system of mechanical television to members of the Royal Institute. This led to news coverage in the Times of London and money from donors so that he can perfect his device. In 1930 Baird sent pictures via BBC transmitter at night after normal radio programs were closed. This was the first regular television service.

Despite the success of Baird, this form of television, which is returned to television because of engine operation and mechanics of disks involved, had many technical limitations. The engineers working on mechanical television could not get over about 240 lines of resolution means still images would be a bit fuzzy. The use of a rotating disk can also limit the number of new images per second that can be seen and this led to excessive blinking. It became evident that if the mechanics of television could be removed, higher quality and more stable images could be the result.

Electronic Television

The first man to imagine an electronic television was a British engineer named A. Electric Campbell Swinton. In a speech in 1911, Swinton has described the project, using a cathode ray tube and to capture the light and see a picture. The CRT is a glass bottle with a long neck at one end and a flat screen to another. A bottle of clean air has been pumped to the "electron gun" in the neck could shoot electrons to the flattened tube, which was covered with a phosphor coating material. When the electrons hit the material glow. Sweep up the flow of electrons back and forth in rows from top to bottom, and a variable intensity of the flow, based Swinton, the image can be plotted in a similar way Nipkow disks do not.

A modified version of the tube can also be used as a camera. If the flat end could get a sandwich of metal, a non-conductive material and a material photoelectric light focused on the flat end with a goal would give a positive charge inside the surface. By scanning electron flow through the flat end, back online, the costs could be read and the image can be transformed into a signal that could be sent to the screen to be seen.

Swinton concept almost exactly describes how the modern television, electronics. While his vision is almost perfect, Swinton, nor anyone else knew at the time actually engineer such a system and make it work. An electronic system if this could be made to work, however, would operate at speeds much faster than any mechanical system could and would give the impression of being composed of several rows, increasing the quality of image.
 
It was eleven years after the conference that the adolescent Swinton Utah became interested in the electronic television. Philo T. Farnsworth had read the Nipkow disk system, and decided that a good picture quality ever. If the test is in power, said one of the high school teachers that he thought he could design a better system. He proceeded to give out of a man surprised by the blackboard in the classroom. The teacher encouraged the Farnsworth and Farnsworth went to California to build a laboratory, where he could test his ideas. Working in dark rooms in Los Angeles and then San Francisco, Farnsworth had to work so secret that his lab was once a police raid, he thought he still used for the illegal production of alcoholic beverages.

From September 1927 Farnsworth was sent to sixty-line camera images on the screen using a fully electronic system. It was at this stage of his work has attracted the attention of David Sarnoff. Sarnoff was the head of the Radio Corporation of America (RCA): radios main power radio and parts of the United States.

Many of the RCA radio as soon as the patent expires, so Sarnoff was looking for another market, could have a TV corner was the obvious choice. When hiring, Vladimir Zworykin, a Russian immigrant who had experienced mechanical television a decade Sarnoff has sent him to California to see the work of Farnsworth. Later, Sarnoff would visit the Farnsworth laboratories.

Sarnoff and Zworykin quickly realized the value of the invention, Farnsworth and Sarnoff tried to buy girl for $ 100,000. Farnsworth, thinking I could do more in the payment of patent royalties that the RCA to sell his invention to them, refused. Sarnoff, irritated, said: "While there is nothing here, it is necessary" and sent Zworykin to build your own version of the technology.

Farnsworth keep the designs appear in the work and follow Zworykin lawsuits between the two companies. RCA was forced to pay Farnsworth $ 1,000,000 in license fees, but the beginning of World War II delayed the introduction of television in most U.S. and the market of electronic television did not really off after the war. By then, many key patents had expired and was never the money Farnsworth probably deserved for his contribution to electronic television.

To make matters worse, the majority of television history is written by employees of the RCA and perhaps in revenge for the license you were forced to leave, contributions to the Farnsworth left completely out of the story.

The closure of mechanical television
So what happened to the mechanical television program is broadcast in the UK? Baird soon realized he had to get help from the BBC to make its mechanical system a complete success. In 1930, however, the BBC has learned that the future of TV is not electronic, mechanical. Launched in November 1936, Baird's mechanical system will be sent a week alternatively an electronic EMI. British citizens were invited to choose what they liked best. The electronic system was much better, and Baird took off the air. Although Baird tried to sell the system for movie theaters, these plans stopped when World War II began, and the BBC television service was closed until the hostilities were over.

In 1939, RCA and Zworykin decided to show their new system of electronic television at the World Exhibition in New York. Not much development has taken place only after the Second World War was over, but in 1946 people could buy a tabletop ten-inch for $ 375.

So who was the real father of television? This invention is omnipresent, like many others, has played a role in its creation. However, it is obvious that much of the credit to electronic television should probably go to Philo Farnsworth. Farnsworth v. Court after the hearing Zworykin to recognize that his ideas found their way into the first commercial systems built on RCA. Many of the processes that operate inside the TV today, was developed in the dark her, a secret laboratory in California.

History Of Neon Lamp




The theory behind the technology dates back to 1675 Neon before the age of electricity when the French astronomer Jean Picard * was a faint glow in a mercury barometer tube. When the tube was shaken 
glow called atmospheric light took place, but the cause of the light (static electricity) was not understood at the time.

Although a causal barometric light was not yet understood, has been studied. Later, when the principles of electricity was discovered, scientists were able to move forward towards the invention of many forms of lighting.

Discharge lamps

In 1855, Geissler tube was invented, named after Heinrich Geissler, a German physicist and glassblower. Meaning Geissler tube was that when the generators were invented, many inventors began to experiment with Geissler tubes, electric, and various gases. When a Geissler tube was set at low pressure and the electric voltage was applied, the gas would glow.

In 1900, after several years of experimentation, several types of electric discharge lamps or vapor lamps invented in Europe and the United States. Simply defined electric discharge lamp is a lamp comprising a transparent container in which a gas is the energy at an applied voltage, and thus made to shine.

Georges Claude - Inventor of the first neon light

The word neon comes from the greek "Neos", which means "new gas". Neon gas was discovered by William Ramsey and MW Travers in 1898 in London. Neon is a rare element in gaseous atmosphere in the extent of 1 part of air at 65 000. It is obtained by liquefaction of air and separated from other gases by fractional distillation.

The French engineer, chemist and inventor Georges Claude (born September 24, 1870, d. May 23, 1960), was the first to apply the electric discharge in a gas closed neon tube (about 1902) to create a light bulb. Georges Claude displayed the first neon lamp to the public December 11, 1910 in Paris.

Georges Claude patented the neon lighting tube 19 January 1915 - U.S. Patent 1,125,476.

In 1923, Georges Claude and introduced French company Claude Neon, neon signs in the U.S. by selling two to one Packard car dealership in Los Angeles. Earle C. Anthony purchased the two signs reading "Packard" for $ 24,000.

Neon lighting quickly became a popular device in outdoor advertising. Visible even in daylight, people would stop and look at the first neon signs dubbed "liquid fire."

How the Neon Sign made?


Hollow glass tubes used to make neon lamps come in 4 foot, 5 and 8 lengths. Formulate the tubes, the glass is heated and lit the gas-air. Many of the compositions of glass are used depending on the country and the supplier. What is called Glass 'soft' has compositions including lead glass, soda-lime glass, glass, and barium. Glass "hard" borosilicate, the family has also been used. Depending on the composition of the glass, glass work is the range from 1600 "F for more than 2200'F. The air temperature in the gas-flame, depending on the fuel and the ratio is approximately 3000'F using propane.

The tubes are scored (partial cut) while cold with a file and broken into pieces while still hot. Then the artisan creates the angle and curve combinations. When the tube is completed, the tube most be processed. This process varies by country, the procedure is called "bombing" of the United States. The tube is partial vacuum. Then there is a short circuit with a high voltage current until the tube at a temperature of 550 F. Then the tube is empty again until it reaches a vacuum of 10-3 Torr. Argon or neon is refilled at a given pressure depending on the diameter of the tube and sealed. In the case of a tube of argon, additional measures are taken for the injection of mercury in general, 10-40ul depending on tube length and the weather is going to operate in.

Red is the color neon gas produces, neon gas glows with its characteristic red light even at atmospheric pressure. Currently, more than 150 possible colors in almost any color other than red is produced argon, mercury and phosphorus. Neon tubes actually refer to all the positive column discharge lamps, regardless of the gas filling. The color blue has been the discovery order (Mercury), white (CO2), gold (Helium), red (Neon), and then a variety of colors phosphor-coated tubes. Mercury spectrum is rich in ultraviolet light, which in turn excites the phosphor coating the inside of the tube of light. Phosphors are available in most any pastel colors.

Is The Virus Alive?

The simplest answer is no, because a couple of reasons, but I admit that this answer does not resolve all the philosophical background related to "life" and what it means to live. Ideally, the virus can be considered as the undead.

A virus can not do themselves, or multiply without the aid of the contents of living cells. Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. There are other agents described in these words ex. Chlamydiaceae family, but his state of life is less often questioned. Maybe it's because they are able to reproduce by cell division and then continue to grow by producing its own proteins. Viruses are assembled from many components that were produced by the host cell kidnapped - once mounted, do not continue to grow. However, an organization is a reagent, increasingly self-sufficient autonomous replication agent metabolism. Yes, some viruses contain and encode enzymes and other structural proteins used to assemble new virions - even have genes that change / evolve over time

However, a virus depends on the ability of the host cell to generate the energy to do all the manufacturing process. Viruses do not come with batteries included, but then nothing "live" does!

In addition, the genome of the virus is mainly deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) or ribodeoxy nucleic acids (RNA), but not as much as in the case of cells of an organism or other antimicrobial agents.

How Small Is A Microorganism?

One of the most important thing to remember about the bacteria are their extreme smallness. The fact that they can not be seen with the naked eye, is one of the main reasons they are not the main reasons they are the people in the dairy and food industries. The average of a bacterial cell is 1 / 25000 of an inch in length and less in diameter. In other words, you can put 25 000 bacterial cells, side by side on a longline empty. However, if 25 000 people were lined up shoulder against shoulder, they would do a line of more than 18 miles long. For us to see these incredibly small living things, a microscope with a magnification of 800 more horsepower or more is required. However, offsetting most of the telescope can observe sporting magnify objects around 7 to 10 power. So if these bacteria are too small to see with the eye, not how you know they are present in food? The process we use is to plate the food examined to determine if bacteria are present.

Take samples of food and places to study a small portion of the agar, which includes food, where bacteria grow. Agar, gelatin-like substance containing bacterial food is actually placed in a Petri dish, shallow circular dish with a lid. A small portion of food research over the surface of the agar. Quantity of food is "covered", depending on the number of bacteria in food is suspect. Foods containing very few bacteria, up to one gram (g) or milliliter (ml) is "covered". Foods rich in bacteria, or one millionth of a gram or per milliliter of food should be covered. The food is mixed with sterile water to reach this small amount of agar in a petri dish. If bacteria are growing rapidly to produce offspring that are 12-48 hours to produce "pile" of bacteria in one place. We can see this mound, and call it a colony.

Individual bacteria are very small. They are usually one or two micrometers in diameter. Since micro means 1 / 000, 000 (1000000), are generally one millionth of a meter in diameter. The meter is 39.37 inches (3.33 cm longer than the yard). How many bacteria are lying side by side, it would take to reach a meter? Because they are a micro 1-1 meters wide, it would take about a million lying side by side to reach a meter, or 500 000 if you are 2 micrometers in width.

Bacteria is the same as a virus? Bacteria are small unicellular organisms. There are many different types who live around us ... on the computer keyboard on the table, in your face and your body! Most of them are harmless. Some, however, can cause illness in our bodies. If you get sick from the bacteria, your doctor may prescribe antibiotics, a drug made from mushrooms, a natural enemy of bacteria, killing the bacterial infection.

Viruses are much smaller and is unlike any other living being on earth. In fact, scientists disagree about whether viruses are "alive" at all. When a small virus comes into contact with the cell type, he likes to attack the virus to the cell poles and spray it with instructions. This guidance supersedes the instructions in the natural nucleus. The cell becomes confused and begins to follow the new (wrong) instructions, and uses its energy to produce more viruses instead of what he was doing before. When the cell is full of new viruses, it explodes and viruses float in search of more cells. Our immune system produces white blood cells that kill viruses, but sometimes it takes time. When your white blood cells find a way to kill viruses, they never forget. If this type of virus never attack your new body, white blood cells killed instantly.

Bacteria are very small. They do things big. If bacteria three micrometers in length was enlarged to the size of a person six feet high, and if the person has been expanded in the same way, the person would be about 700 miles high. Yes, bacteria are small. The bacteria often live in tunnels left as hyphae of soil fungi die. Amoebae are unable to attack the bacteria in tunnels minute in diameter (Shigo, 1999).

It is assumed that each colony originates from a bacterial cell is 12-36 hours. If this assumption is true - sometimes it is not probable, it is possible to calculate the original number of bacteria in the food placed on agar in a petri dish, and knows exactly how much food was put on the plate initially.

While some bacteria are balls, while others are in the form of small hot dogs (hot dogs or sausage). Some of the bacteria with hanging chains as a chain of sausages. Often, these chains contain only a few cells, but a sort of chain of hundreds of cells. Hotdog-shaped bacteria are usually 2 or 3 times longer than wide, but some are much longer than the width. Some individual cells are long-shaped needle.

Many bacteria are increasing in all forms in the cell wall that divides the original cell into two daughter cells that have the same shape and genetic composition. As the cells grow, the time division (fission) is performed for each daughters may be as large as the mother cell had before it began fission (splitting).

Bacteria are very small (microscopic) single-celled prokaryotes, mostly without chlorophyll. (All other eukaryotic organisms - to take the DNA surrounding the nuclear membrane.

Except for some very interesting and other photosynthetic bacteria are chemosynthetic, bacteria are bad synthesizers. Most are saprophytes heterotropic (feeds on dead organic matter) and are important decomposers in the soil and water, but of course some decomposers of food and fiber plant pests and some species of animals causing serious and plant diseases.

To familiarize yourself with the three types of bacteria, first look at the color of the blade "type of bacteria." The cocci (singular: coccus) are spherical, the bacilli (singular: bacterium) are rod-shaped, the spirillum (spirillum) are spiral. Sometimes the cells are simple, sometimes they are together in chains or groups. For example, streptococci in chains of streptococci in pairs: diplococci, in irregular groups: staphylococci, diced ordinary

Bacteria are tiny organisms made from a single cell. They are present everywhere: air, soil, and skin, for example. Many of them are microbes that cause diseases (rhinitis, listeriosis, and others), but others are very useful for humans. For example, bacteria in the gut to aid digestion and often used by bacteria to food products (yogurt, sauerkraut, etc.).

Bacteria are tiny single-celled living things. Their cell walls are different from other living beings - they are made of another material, and the nuclei and organelles are not enclosed in membranes. Bacteria are very successfully adapted to a wide variety of habitats. While most people need oxygen for respiration, others use sulfate and nitrate instead of oxygen.

Bacteria are very small micro-organisms that can not be seen with the naked eye. So we can not see them swimming in the water. Another problem is that the millions of bacteria are often summarized in a small point.

You can see the bacteria when they grow up disk nutrients so that each colony of bacteria in the thousands of bacteria. Then we can see the bacteria colony.

Bacteria are very small - can not be seen with the naked eye - up to 3 million until the end of a pin. Some bacteria are essential for life and are naturally in the human gut and aid digestion. The bacteria that are harmful to humans are called pathogens, and it is these that cause food poisoning and other diseases. Many of these bacteria are destroyed during cooking, but some of them may produce spores and toxins that can survive very high temperatures, and thus can re-contaminate food as it cools.

As a side note, not all bacteria are very small, ie a few microns, there are some species that are a fraction of a millimeter in diameter. Most of the bacteria found to be 0.75 mm in diameter, was recently in the press, and is therefore only the naked eye. All of the illustrated book, this bacterium is April 16, 1999 edition of "Science" magazine.

Bacteria are very small, but they indicate a surprising complexity of their structures. The bacteria cause disease (pathogens) have several characteristics that make them a better ability to generate disease. An important feature is the ability to connect the victim. Many bacteria are able to purchase in your environment, gliding motion. Bacteria have long, flexible, spiral-shaped structure, scourge, which helps to pass the solution microbe. As the microbe grows, is synthesized by most of the self.

Bacteria are tiny creatures, which can be seen under a microscope.

Bacteria are very small (<1 to 5 microns) and can not be properly seen by electron microscopy. Fungi and protozoa are much larger (12 to 200 microns or more) and can be seen with increased light microsope x 400.

Bacteria multiply by splitting into two halves, a process called fission. In the most favorable conditions of a bacterial cell divides into two cells of approximately 20 to 30 minutes. Twenty minutes later, these two cells are elongated and divided into four cells. Then after 20 minutes, each of the four cells divide into eight cells and so on. This is called logarithmic ("log growth" as the bacteriologist call it). For example, "cell to cell 32 '1 'two-cell 4-cell" 8-cell "of 64 cells 16 cells' 128 cells 512 cells 256 cells 1024 cells, etc. In the above example of a bacterial cell, multiplying each 20 minutes increase this number in less than 3 hours to about 1020 cells. Within 36 hours of continuous operation, unlimited growth, there would be enough bacteria to fill 200 trucks of five tons! Of course, bacteria do not multiply indefinitely, if not control the growth of bacteria? One factor is temperature.

Nanobacteria have unique properties. First, nanobacteria can be grown in cell culture media of mammalian cells. But this organization is not necessary that all mammalian cells. It grows in the same or similar conditions to those used by mammalian cells. The doubling time is strikingly similar to human fibroblasts - three days. Bacteria are very small, coconuts, and the size of the average population is about 0.2 to 0.3 micrometers in diameter. Because they are so small that we can not use optical microscopy to observe. However, they have a sole proprietorship. Biogenic apatite is broduce in the form of a thick shell, and therefore become very difficult to see. Apatite is a high-density material can be easily seen. They seem to have very thick cell wall and yet you can apply a filter in relatively high yields through 0.2 micron filters and some of them pass through 0.1 micron filter. Heat resistance is outstanding. Bearing 90 ° C for 1 hour.

So this is the first body or stick resistant thermophilic organism isolated from humans. We can not really say that it is thermophilic in the traditional sense, but at least is compatible with the thermal treatment time. It can reach 45 º C to excellent. Since the use of culture media containig a serum, it is not possible to go to higher temperatures, because we're going to cook than the average. In addition, the organism is highly resistant to gamma radiation. This is a unique phenomenon. It is also resistant to antibiotics, as aminoclycosides, despite high doses are certainly effective against them. They are extremely resistant to disinfection and lysis.

Bacteria are tiny single-celled microorganisms that reproduce by cell division.

Bacteria are small unicellular organisms found everywhere Iin the environment and generally live in harmony with the body. Specific types of bacterial infections have their own name, Stangl such, but most infections are not specific and occur after an accident or a weakened immune system.

Bacteria are important organisms of the disease and our ecosystem.Bacteria are very small, about 0.1 to 20 micrometers. There are two distinct groups f bacteria Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. They differ in their cell walll composition and that the cause disease.The Gram-negative bacteria secrete toxins normallly, toxic substances that destroy the cells. Bacteria can also be grouped according to their shape: straight bars, round or curved spirochetes coconuts or comma-shaped vibrios. Most bacteria possess a cell wall, but unlike other cells, their genetic material is enclosed by a nucleus. The bacteria may be useful for nitrogen fixation and the breakdown of dead plants and animals in the ecosystem. Some bacteria can survive in adverse environments, bacteria have a tail spores.Some are known as the beating of flagella around the bacteria move forward.

Wednesday, October 26, 2011

The Wheel History

The initial design for ceramics used in the most advanced technology known to mankind, the wheel has not stopped driving our civilization as a catalyst in a chemical reaction. We thought it would be a good idea to make a tour through the different stages of evolution of the wheel and see where it goes now.

Begining 
The researchers agreed that 3500 BC is the year he invented the wheel, which is more than an order of magnitude of an exact year. The place is Mesopotamia, the area now occupied by the war-torn Iraq. The first wheel for transport is about 3200 BC, with the purpose of passing cars Mesopotamia.

For the complete story, as shown here, the beginning of the rear wheel to the Paleolithic era (15,000 to 750,000 years).

So, people used logs to move heavy loads around. The biggest problem with this method of transport is that many of the rolls have been requested, and the treatment had to certify that the rollers remained faithful to the course. One theory of how this obstacle was overcome propose a platform or a sled, built in grills are installed, which prevents the rollers from slipping out from under the load. Use the two rollers, two grids of each coil, one front, one aft, and roll.

It took another 1500 years before our ancestors thought the next step in the evolution of the wheel spoke. Need to expedite the transport and the idea of ​​using less material because of this technological innovation. The Egyptians are credited with the first implementation of the spoked wheel of the model year 2000 BC, chariots. Reduced form of carving on both sides, but it was the Greeks, the first time in the street, or H-type of wheel.

The first tire iron around in cars are Celts in 1000 BC. The spoked wheel has remained largely unchanged until 1802, when GF Bauer filed a patent for wire tension spoke for the first time. This wire spoke consisted of a piece of wire passes through the rim of the wheel and secured at both ends of the cube. In the coming years, this wire spoke evolved round tension spoke bicycle we see today.

Another great invention that had the same thing with the thread tension was spoken of the tire, which was patented in 1845 by RW Thompson. His idea was reinforced in 1888 by John Dunlop, a Scottish veterinarian, who also patented. Thank you to the smooth ride, Dunlop tires replaced the hard rubber used by all the bikes at the time.

Car Wheels 
You just start talking about car wheels from 1885 Karl Benz Benz Patent Motorwagen. The tricycle used bicycle wheel as a child, they were equipped with hard rubber.

Speaking of rubber, the first people who have thought to use it in the car for purposes of André and Edouard Michelin, who later founded the famous tire manufacturer. In 1910, BF Goodrich Company invented longer than tires with the addition of carbon.

Overseas, Ford Model T wheel Artillery Wood, which was followed in 1926 and 1927 welded steel-wheels. Contrary to Karl Benz first vehicle, the car that "put America on wheels" were invented by Mr. Dunlop tires. But there was a significant difference between these tires and the ones we use today. Made of tires White rubber, self had a life expectancy of about 2000 miles. A tire lasted only 30 or 40 miles before repairs. Common problems include: tires that come off the wheel, punctures, and the tube is a hurry.

Paradoxically, the next step in the development of the flying saucer was the one that says more in common with the original solid model. Like so many other things in our history, the change resulted in a lower cost than the steel disc wheels have less to do. RIM could have rolled straight out of the strip of metal, and the same disc can be printed on the sheet in a single easy motion. Two components were welded or riveted together, and the result was one of the wheels, which was relatively light, stiff, durable non-life, easy to produce large quantities and, above all, cheaply produced.

Perhaps now would be a good time to talk about the difference between the rims and wheels. Although most people now refer to the wheels, especially alloy rims these, the term really means the outer edge of the wheel where the tire is mounted.

Returning to our story today, there are basically two types of wheels for use, alloy steel and automobiles, which have benefited from technological advances. As a result, large and heavy wheels of the car, the early days have become light, solid-ray equipment. It should be noted that, as the first rays of the solid wheel design oriented relatively early stages of humanity, so that in the 20th century.

Although we are not too technical about the differences between steel and aluminum wheels, we will say that it is easier and better conductors of heat. As a result, vehicles with improved alloy wheels, sports steering and handling and extend brake life. They are also more visually appealing, but that's another story. On the other hand, mags more expensive to manufacture than steel, which increases the overall price of the car.

The future of the Wheel 
Since the traditional wheel design is close to exhausting the possible development of more and more companies have argued that prototypes of the exotic in its place. Of these, Michelin is probably in the field of research over the last two innovative concepts, Tweel and Active Wheel System.

Tweel 
Announced in 2006, the Tweel becomes the first designs with a non-pneumatic solution rather than the traditional combination of tires and wheels. The running surface consists of a rubber bearing, which binds to the center for flexible radios. The flexible spokes are fused with a deformable wheel that absorbs shock and rebounds. Michelin says that even without the need for air in conventional tires, Tweel still offers the kind of comfort ride tires load capacity and resistance to road hazards.

Although it offers many advantages, the Tweel is overshadowed by a big problem: vibration at speeds over 50 mph (80 km / h), so only suitable for the construction and personal mobility vehicles.

Active Wheel systemThe concept is probably the most revolutionary of all, since it includes all the key components of the car in motion. Even if only for electric vehicles, the Active Wheel system houses the engine, suspension, gearbox and drive shaft.

History of Battery


The battery, which is really a cell is an electronic device that produces electricity through a chemical reaction. In a single battery cell, there is a negative electrode, electrolyte, which makes the ions, a separator, the ion conductor, and the positive electrode.

Chronology of the history of the battery

1748
- Benjamin Franklin first coined the term "battery" to describe a variety of charged glass plates.

1780-1786 - Luigi Galvani demonstrated what we now understand to be the basis of the electronic transmission of nerve impulses, and provided the cornerstone for future research inventors like Volta, to create a battery.

1800 Voltaic cell - Alessandro Volta invented the voltaic pile and discovered the first practical method for generating electricity. Constructed of alternating discs of zinc and copper with pieces of cardboard in brine between the metals, Arrows Voltic produced electricity. The Arc metal implement was used to transport electricity over long distances. Voltaic battery Alessandro Volta was the first "wet cell battery" that produced a reliable, stable flow of electricity.

1836 Daniell Cell
, Volta's battery could not deliver an electric current through a longer period. John F. English Daniell invented the Daniell cell that used two electrolytes: copper sulfate and zinc sulfate. Daniel cell lasted longer then the Volta cell or battery. The battery, which produced about 1.1 volts, was used to power items such as telegraphs, telephones and doorbells, remained popular in homes for over 100 years.

1839 Fuel Cell
- William Robert Grove developed the first fuel cell that produces electricity by combining hydrogen and oxygen.

1839-1842
- Inventors created improvements to batteries used liquid electrodes to produce electricity. Bunsen (1842) and Grove (1839) came up with the most successful.

1859 Rechargeable - French inventor, Gaston Plante developed the first practical storage lead-acid battery can be recharged (secondary battery). This type of battery is primarily used in cars today.

1866 Leclanché carbon-zinc-Cel
l - a French engineer, Georges Leclanché patented carbon-zinc batteries, wet cell called Leclanché. According to the History of the batteries: "George Leclanché original cell was assembled porous vase The positive electrode consisted of crushed manganese dioxide and carbon mixed into the negative terminal zinc finger of the cathode was packed into the pot, and the rod Carbon was added to operate the coin collector anode or zinc rod and the plate was immersed in a solution of ammonium chloride .... actuated by a fluid electrolyte, can easily inside through the porous cup and stay in touch with the cathode material. actuated by a fluid electrolyte, can easily inside through the porous cup and stay in contact with the cathode material.

"Georges Leclanche, and further improve the design by replacing ammonium chloride liquid electrolyte paste and invented a method of sealing the battery with the invention of the first dry cell, an improved design is now portable.

1881 - Judge Thiebaut patented the first battery with both the negative electrode and porous pot placed in a glass of zinc.

1881 - Carl Gassner invented the first commercial success of the dry cell battery (zinc-carbon cell).

1899 - Waldmar Jungner invented the first battery nickel cadmium rechargeable batteries.

1901 Alkaline - Thomas Alva Edison invented the alkaline battery. Thomas Edison had an iron alkaline battery anode material (-) and oxide cathode material nickelic (+).

1949 alkaline manganese batterie
s - Lew Urry developed a small alkaline battery in 1949. The inventor had worked with Eveready Battery Co. research laboratory in Parma, Ohio. Alkaline batteries last five to eight times as long as the zinc-carbon cells, their predecessors.

1954 solar cells - Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin invented the first solar battery. A solar battery converts the sun's energy into electricity. In 1954, Gerald Pearson, Calvin Fuller and Daryl Chapin invented the first solar battery. The inventors created a series of several strips of silicon (each about the size of a razorblade), placed in sunlight, captured the free electrons and convert them into electricity. Bell Laboratories in New York announced the prototype manufacture of a new solar battery. Bell had funded the research. The first public service trial of Bell Solar Battery began with a telephone support system (Americus, Georgia) October 4, 1955.

1964 -
Duracell was formed.

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

The Piano Invention

Europe during the Baroque era, musicians and artists supported by the church, the state and the rich. This system of patronage had been in Italy for hundreds of years, between late 1400 and early 1500, when Michelangelo worked as a sculptor and artist Medlci family in Florence. From 1690 until his death Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731) went to work at the court of the Medici, Prince Ferdinand de 'in Florence, a designer and supervisor of the keyboards. He is known for several innovations in harpsichord construction and especially the invention of the piano.

Mannucci Francis wrote in his diary (February 1711) that began in 1698 Cristofori "arcicembal What makes the piano and forte" (harpsichord soft and hard), tools for mapping of Physicians in 1700 found that at least one had been completed by that date. Article Scipione Maffei in 1711, it was found that in 1709 Cristofori had built three "harpsichord with the plan and strong", a unique feature of his invention was a mechanic, who has made possible the sound at the same time the more points a finger and had therefore be able to produce any work of literature of all the hard and soft Western music changes the player touches the keyboard. Cristofori "piano and forte was the form of a combination of harpsichord and clavichord nearly the power capacity of expression.

Cristofori "piano e forte" has not generated much enthusiasm in Italy. Harpsichord is difficult to control the feel and tone similar, but fainter and sweeter than the best harpsichords of the day. In the late 1730 Gottfrled Silberman read a German because of Maffei in the article and began experimenting on the new design. Bach tried one of his pianos, but did not like the heavy touch and weak treble. Silberman finally got a more accurate description of the Cristofori action. It is reported that Bach was satisfied with the design Silberman recent piano that had a similar case in 1720-Cristofori pianos that survive today.

Cristofori and Silberman tried to build a harpsichord with expressive features. The second half of the 18 th century was dominated by Germans and Austrians are concerned about the clavichord built stronger. Unfortunately, the design of Cristofori's action was so complex that manufacturers after the economy greatly simplified, resulting in a less efficient, which was not generally accepted. Later in the 18 th century, the development of operational planning were really re-invent the principles are treated Cristofori, the inventor of the piano, a stringed instrument keyboard instrument collecting mechanical hammers

That included a complex mechanical action with a hammer, which amounted to a string (heavier than a clavichord string) four times faster than the movement key (eight times faster on their instruments below). It also includes an exhaust system to allow the hammer to rebound freely vibrating string, a check for the hammer to prevent bounce and movement so that the hammer does not play one of the two channels to reduce the volume.

Monday, October 24, 2011

4 stroke engine principle


1. On the negative side first, the intake valve opens and air / fuel mixture enters the combustion chamber.

2. On the upstroke, the intake valve closes and the fuel / air.

3.Ignition happens to candle (not shown), the fuel / air mixture to explode, and the piston is forced down for     the  second time in the cycle. This is called "power stroke".

4. Exhaust valve is open and the piston moves up and the second period, and Exhaust gases are expelled through the exhaust valve in the muffler.

2 Stoke Engine


Two engines are available almost everywhere these days. They are used in dozens of applications and a variety of models for all the work and recreation, the production of electricity. Two engines are differences in the design and operating conditions that require different chemical oil than their four-stroke. In order to recommend a lubricant for two stroke engines, this engine must know how it works, why it is used in place of a four-stroke engine, and where and what kind of applications that are used.

What is a two-stroke engine?


The terms "two cycles" and "two times" are often inter-changed when it comes to two-stroke engines. These engines derive their name from the amount of directional changes that the pistons do in each power stroke. Internal combustion engines used to produce mechanical energy of the chemical energy contained in hydrocarbons. The power part of the production cycle of the engine begins operating within the engine cylinders with a compression process. After this compression, combustion of fuel-air mixture then releases the chemical energy of fuel and produces high-temperature, high pressure combustion products. These gases then expand within each cylinder and transfer work to the piston. Thus, when the motor operates continuously, the mechanical energy produced. Each upward or downward movement of the piston is called a stroke. There are two cycles commonly used internal combustion engines: two-stroke cycle and four times.

What are the different two-stroke four-stroke engine?


The fundamental difference between two-stroke engines and four-stroke engines in the process of gas exchange, or more simply, the exhaust outlet at the end of each expansion process and the induction of a fresh mixture for the next cycle. The two-stroke engine has an extension, or movement of energy in each cylinder during each revolution of the crankshaft. The exhaust and the charging process occurs while the piston moves through its central position the lower or lower.

In a four-stroke engine, the gases burned during the first piston to move upward stroke, and then fresh charge to enter the cylinder during the next race down. This means that the four-engine two full turns of the engine power stroke, compared to the single turn necessary in a two-stroke engine. In other words, two motors are operated 360 degrees of crankshaft rotation, while the four engines that operate at 720 degrees of crankshaft rotation.

 





When using two stroke engines?

Two cycle engines are inexpensive to build and operate than four-stroke engines. They are lighter and can also produce a higher power to weight. For these reasons, two-stroke engines are very useful in applications such as chainsaws, outboard motors Weedeaters, lawnmowers and motorcycles, to name a few. Two cycle engines are also easier to start at low temperatures. Part of this may be due to its design and the absence of a sink. This is one reason why these engines are also commonly used in snowmobiles and snow blowers.

Some advantages and disadvantages of two-stroke engines

Because two-stroke engines can effectively double the number of power strokes per unit time compared to four stroke engines, the power is greater. However, it increases by a factor of two. The outputs of the two-stroke engines ranging from only 20 to 60 percent larger than the size equivalent to four cycles of the units. This increase is lower than expected is the result of poorer than ideal charging efficiency, or in other words, incomplete filling of the cylinder volume with fresh fuel and air. There is also a major drawback in this case the transfer of power. The higher frequency of combustion events in the results of two-stroke engines at high average rates of heat transfer from hot gases burned in the walls of the engine's combustion chamber. Higher temperatures and thermal stresses in the cylinder head (especially on the piston crown) result.

Traditional two engines are also not effective because of the washing effect allows up to 30 percent of unburned fuel / oil mixture of exhaust gases. In addition, a portion of the exhaust gases is the combustion chamber during the cycle. This inefficiency contribute to the loss of power compared to the four engines and explains why the two motors can be achieved only up to 60 percent more power.

How are the two-stroke engines are lubricated?


Two cycle engine lubrication systems considered total loss of its kind. Because housing is an integral part of the admissions process, can not act as an oil sump as is found in four-stroke engines. Lubricants traditional two-stroke engines is performed by mixing the oil with fuel. The oil is burned in the combustion air / fuel mixture. Direct injection engines are different because the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber while the oil is injected directly into the crankcase. This process is efficient because the fuel is injected after the exhaust port closes, and therefore more complete combustion of fuel produces more power and develops. Direct injection engines have a higher power density than traditional two-stroke engines. Because oil is injected directly into the crankcase, less oil is needed and the results of lower consumption of oil (80:1 wide). Direct injection engines have higher combustion temperatures, often up to 120F. They also require more lubrication than conventional two-stroke engines.

The Operation Of The Steam Engine

The following diagram shows the main components of a steam engine piston. This type of engine would be typical of a steam locomotive.

The engine shown is a steam double effect, since the valve allows high pressure steam to act alternately on both sides of the piston. The following animation shows the engine of action.

You can see that the slide valve is responsible for letting the steam at high pressure on both sides of the cylinder. Control valve bar is usually attached to your head, cross connected with the activity of the cross slide valve as well. (There is a steam locomotive, this linkage also allows the engineer put the train in reverse.)

You can see in this picture that the exhaust steam simply vents into the air. This explains two things steam locomotives:
  • It explains why the station should take water - the water is steadily lost steam pipe.
  • It explains that the "Choo-Choo" sound comes from. When you open the cylinder valve to release the steam escape, the escaping steam under great pressure and makes a "choo!" sounds in their output. When the train is the first start, the piston moves slowly, but as the train starts rolling the piston gains speed. The effect of this is the "Choo Choo Choo Choo ...- ..... .... chu-chu" means when you start to move.

Saturday, October 22, 2011

History Of Radio

This is a brief history of the development of radio from the early period when radio manufacturing ended in Wolverhampton. The description of each development is necessarily technical in nature. Actual descriptions of some of the districts are included, but these are separate from the text itself, so if you are interested in the technique, can be ignored.

Beginning

James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish physicist, was born June 13, 1831, in Edinburgh. He was very interested in the work of Michael Faraday on electromagnetism. Faraday said that the effects of electric and magnetic field are caused by power lines, which are surrounded by wires and magnets. Maxwell has an analogy between the behavior of power lines and the flow of liquid from the equations that represent the effects of electric and magnetic field. In 1855 he prepared a document, which is based on Faraday's ideas, and in 1861 developed a hypothetical model of a medium consisting of liquid, which can operate in electric and magnetic field effects. He also considered what would happen if the liquid was flexible, and the payment was applied. This failure has created a fluid that would produce waves, which travel medium. German physicists Friedrich Kohlrausch and Wilhelm Weber, calculated on the basis that these waves travel at the speed of light.

Maxwell finally published this work in his "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism," in 1873.

In 1888 the German physicist Heinrich Hertz made the sensational discovery of radio waves, a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength too long for our eyes to see, confirming the ideas of Maxwell. He designed an oscillator of the transmitter, which radiated radio waves, and found using a metal buckle with a hole in one side. As the rope was placed in an electromagnetic field of the transmitter was produced sparks into space. It turned out that electromagnetic waves could be sent into space, and recorded remotely. These waves were known as 'radio waves' and Hertz was able to detect the length of his laboratory.

Guglielmo Marconi and his family in 1933

Italian Guglielmo Marconi was born was fascinated by the discovery of Hertz, and I realized that if radio waves can transmit and detect long-distance wireless telegraphy could be developed. He began experimenting in 1894 and set up branches in the rough on opposite sides of the family garden. He was able to receive signals at a distance of 100 meters, and at the end of 1895 had extended over a mile away. He approached the Italian Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, to inform them of their experiences. The Ministry was not interested and if his cousin Henry Jameson Davis, organized a meeting with Nyilliam Preece, who was chief engineer of the British Post Office.

He came to England in February 1896 and made demonstrations in London at the General Post Office building. Their transmissions were detected 1.5 km, and 2 September at Salisbury Plain, in the range has been increased to eight miles. In 1897 obtained a patent for wireless telegraphy and established wireless telegraphy and the Society of the signal in Chelmsford. The factory of the world's radio station opened in 1898. May 11, 1897 The tests were performed to establish that the contacts were possible in the water. A transmitter was set at Lavernock Point near Penarth and the transmissions received from the other side of the Bristol Channel to the island of Holm, a distance of 3.5 kilometers. The Daily Express was the first newspaper to obtain news of the wireless telegraph, in August 1898 and December of this year was the creation of communication between the royal yacht of Queen Victoria, in front of Cowes and Osborne House. Queen was a regular health service announcements, the Prince of Wales, the radio, from the yacht, where he was recovering.


Also in December this year, wireless communication is established between the East Goodwin light ship and lighthouse Foeland South. On March 3, 1899 Marconi received much publicity in the first life was saved by the wireless telegraph, which was used to rescue a ship in distress in the North Sea. In the summer the red channel of communication had been established and published newsletters for the first time sent by the wireless Ocean.

At that time, Marconi began developing tuned circuits for wireless transmission, so that wireless can be configured for a particular frequency, to eliminate all transmissions, except for the interest. He patented the April 26, 1900, under the name of "syntonic Tuned telegraph."

Thursday, December 12, 1901, Marconi and his associates were able to send a signal across the Atlantic. He sailed to Newfoundland with GS Kemp and PW Paget, and received a transmission from Poldhu, Cornwall. The transmission was received at Signal Hill using an antenna kite. The British Government and the Admiralty was very impressed, and many people wanted to invest in new technologies.

The demand has grown and a lot of ships, the new device, which saves many lives. One of the most famous occasion was when the Titanic sank. Signals transmitted by the Marconi Wireless and asked for help to save many lives.

Receivers for the moment, mostly crystal sets, which were very insensitive and non-selective. They were connected to the headset, and needed a long antenna.

At this time wireless was strictly controlled by the post office. It was a simple matter to obtain a license from the reception, but much harder to get permission to use a transmitter. For the Post Office had to be convinced that the applicant had sufficient technical skills or knowledge to operate the transmitter. Output power was limited to ten watts, and the use is allowed only for scientific research or for something useful to the public. A small number of fans had to pass before the First World War. We had at least two of Wolverhampton, Harry Stevens, of Oaklands Road and Vincent J. Waine Helmsley Lodge, Wednesfield.

Mr. Wayne, which began broadcasting in 1898 became well known throughout the local level, when he received the SOS was sent by P. & O. Narrung liner during a storm in the Channel, Boxing Day, 1912. Wireless was his main hobby was an enthusiastic amateur and recorded messages from as far away as Russia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Africa and America. Designed and built all their transmission and reception equipment, including a spark transmitter and a special sensitive detector. He was never satisfied with the team and always sought to improve its performance. Call sign of Mr. Waine was "ZAX". The three antennas in his back garden and uses some 3,000 meters of thread. The equipment was installed in a cabinet in the dining room so you can use with ease.

Mr. Waine also had links with the independent commercial radio and joined Marconi, Dr. Fleming, and Sir Henry Jackson, who was an admiral of the fleet. He also gave financial assistance to Mr. John Logie Baird, television pioneer.

Mr. Waine eight and a half son, Vincent, was also an amateur radio enthusiast and eager to use his father's equipment. He is able to make a miniature wireless receiving and sending more than three miles.

Mr Waine and his family purchased the point of air lighthouse at the mouth of the River Dee, as a holiday weekend home early 1930. Like a weekend was used as the basis for much of his experimental work.


The Story Of The Film

The first machine patented in the United States that showed animated pictures or movies was a device called a "wheel of life" or "Zoopraxiscope". Patented in 1867 by William Lincoln, came from the drawings or photographs as seen through a crack in Zoopraxiscope. However, it was far from being the film we know today. Manufacture of a modern film began with the invention of the camera.
 
The Frenchman Louis Lumiere is often credited as inventing the movie camera for the first time in 1895. But in truth, many others had made similar inventions in the same time as the Light. What Lumiere invented a portable movie camera, the film processing unit and projector called the Cinematograph, three functions provided by an invention.

The films are very popular, and it might be better to say that the Light invention began the era of cinema. In 1895, Light and his brother were the first to present projected, moving, photos, pictures to a paying audience of more than one person.

The Lumiere brothers were not the first film project. In 1891, the successor to the Edison Company demonstrated the Kinetoscope, which enabled a person in time to see live images. Later, in 1896, Edison showed his improved range Vita projector, and it was the first commercially successful, projector in the U.S.

Wednesday, October 19, 2011

Make and Use a Pinhole Camera

Can or Box Pinhole

A pinhole camera is a small test light can or box with a black interior and a small hole in the center of one end. The use of common household materials, you can make a device that produces images.

The Box 
When you make a pinhole camera or rolls sheets, film, use a small can or box as the body of the camera. You can use anything that has a tight top - a clean paint can be a vegetable fat, 2 pounds of coffee can, a shoe box or even a box of oatmeal cylindrical.

To be light-tight, paint the inside a matt black paint or line with black paper to avoid light reflection. If you use a plastic lid, paint the lid black.

Remember to paint inside and out, then prior to use, make sure that no paint chipped off. Chipped or peeling paint the cover to give light to the camera and ruin your photos.

Pinhole 
The film is set inside the lid so you need to make the hole in the bottom of the box. You can make the hole in reality itself may, but is much easier to do on a sheet of paper or thin thick black metal and configure the space in a bigger hole cut in the center of the bottom of the box . Heavy-duty foil, cut a piece of aluminum from a soda can or paper support rolls of Kodak 120 film size is best for this purpose.

The distance of the film from the hole and pinhole diameter will determine the angle and sharpness of the image. For a camera with a hole 3 to 6 inches of the movie, you get the best results if inch hole is 1 / 75 in diameter. You can make a hole this size by pushing a needle through No. 10 paper or metal to a point of the needle from the needle. The hole should be circular as possible.

TIP: You get a smooth hole if you rotate the needle as you push it through. If you use foil or paper, sandwiched between two lightweight cards while you make the pinhole. This will help you create a hole softer, rounder.

If you use a piece of aluminum from a soda can, put it on a hard surface and make a small hole in the aluminum with an awl or ice pick. == Do not press too hard tip should barely break the surface. See illustration. Expand and gentle touch of a needle No. 10 on the underside. You can smooth the rough edges with fine sandpaper.

Pinhole punch
 Now you need to make a hole 1 / 4 inch or more in diameter in the middle of the lower end of the camera and tape your pinhole in position over the center of the hole.

You can check to make sure the pinhole is perfectly round looking at the back of the camera. If you want the image is clearly visible, aim the camera toward the printed page if you see the letters clearly.


Shutter and Viewfinder
The shutter of the camera can be a piece of opaque paper, turning dark with a piece of tape. Use a small piece of tape to keep the shutter closed before and after taking a picture.

A viewfinder of a camera obscura, although not necessary, you can make two pieces of cardboard or wire. The front bezel of the display must be the same shape and slightly smaller than the film and just above the pinhole in the front of the camera. The rear frame is a sight watching over the top of the box and aligned with the center of the image above.

When you point your camera at subjects closer than 5 feet, place the subject are the viewfinder to allow for parallax - the difference between the view you see in the viewfinder and the image is captured on film. This effect is caused by the separation between the viewfinder and the pinhole.

Loading a Can or Box Pinhole Camera
You can download the camera, film or fast photographic paper. Your choice of film or paper may depend in part on holding periods. Paper, because it is less sensitive to light than film, which will probably require exposure for about 2 minutes on a sunny. Film may require only 1 or 2 seconds to arguments in the light of the sun.

Paper is easier to handle because you can load it into the camera lighting for safety. If you do not have a safe light, you can work in the light of a flashlight covered with several layers of red cellophane paper placed 6 to 8 meters away. Most of the films, on the other hand, must be handled in total darkness.

If you use film, you can cut a roll of Kodak Tri-X Pan and KODAK T-MAX 400 Professional Film, 120 size, two 3/8-inch squares or 2 3 / 8 x 3 1/2- pieces an inch. This should be done in total darkness, of course. At night a closet will probably be dark enough if lights in adjoining rooms are turned off. Film as KODAK PROFESSIONAL TRI-X Pan, is easier to use because it is flat.

A camera from a 2 lb coffee can take a 2 1 / 4 x 3 1/4-inch pieces of film or photographic paper. You can use a 3 1 / 4 x 4 1/4-inch pieces while about 1 / 2 inch is cut from each corner of the film or paper. A camera from a 1 gallon paint can take a 4 x 5 inch piece of film or paper.

When you have the paper size or the movie you need is a tape firmly into the end of the chamber opposite the pinhole. The emulsion should face the hole. The emulsion side of photographic paper is the bright side. The emulsion on roll film is inside the loop. The film is identified by the notches on one side shorter. When the film is held vertically with the notches on the top edge toward the right side, the emulsion is facing you. Another way to determine the emulsion side of the paper or film is playing both sides with a wet finger. The emulsion side will feel a little sticky. Test near the edge to avoid a fingerprint in the center of the image. You will need a ribbon around if you are using rolls of film or paper cut-up. Recording two diagonal corners of work for the cinema. Close to the camera, making sure that the shutter is closed.

It's a good idea to practice with a piece of exposed film or paper before you try to load the camera to your actual photo.

 Exposure 
To get crisp, clear images, the camera is still very still while the shutter is open. Use plenty of tape or a piece of clay to hold the camera steady. Lift the black paper to reveal a pinhole, and to maintain the open hole for the recommended time. Cover the pinhole with black paper liabilities.

The following table shows the approximate exposure recommendations for a pinhole camera. It's a good idea to make three exposures of different durations of each stage to increase the likelihood that you will have a good image.

KODAK Film

Bright Sun

Cloudy Bright

TRI-X Pan, T-MAX 400, or ROYAL Pan Film 4141
(ESTAR Thick Base)
1 or 2
seconds
4 to 8
seconds
T-MAX 100 Film2 to 4
seconds
8 to 16
seconds

Processing and Printing
Process and negative film print as usual. Dry the paper negative and make a contact print as usual, with '(image) emulsion side of the paper negative toward the emulsion (glossy) of the press.