Feature Post

Saturday, October 22, 2011

History Of Radio

This is a brief history of the development of radio from the early period when radio manufacturing ended in Wolverhampton. The description of each development is necessarily technical in nature. Actual descriptions of some of the districts are included, but these are separate from the text itself, so if you are interested in the technique, can be ignored.


James Clerk Maxwell, Scottish physicist, was born June 13, 1831, in Edinburgh. He was very interested in the work of Michael Faraday on electromagnetism. Faraday said that the effects of electric and magnetic field are caused by power lines, which are surrounded by wires and magnets. Maxwell has an analogy between the behavior of power lines and the flow of liquid from the equations that represent the effects of electric and magnetic field. In 1855 he prepared a document, which is based on Faraday's ideas, and in 1861 developed a hypothetical model of a medium consisting of liquid, which can operate in electric and magnetic field effects. He also considered what would happen if the liquid was flexible, and the payment was applied. This failure has created a fluid that would produce waves, which travel medium. German physicists Friedrich Kohlrausch and Wilhelm Weber, calculated on the basis that these waves travel at the speed of light.

Maxwell finally published this work in his "Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism," in 1873.

In 1888 the German physicist Heinrich Hertz made the sensational discovery of radio waves, a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength too long for our eyes to see, confirming the ideas of Maxwell. He designed an oscillator of the transmitter, which radiated radio waves, and found using a metal buckle with a hole in one side. As the rope was placed in an electromagnetic field of the transmitter was produced sparks into space. It turned out that electromagnetic waves could be sent into space, and recorded remotely. These waves were known as 'radio waves' and Hertz was able to detect the length of his laboratory.

Guglielmo Marconi and his family in 1933

Italian Guglielmo Marconi was born was fascinated by the discovery of Hertz, and I realized that if radio waves can transmit and detect long-distance wireless telegraphy could be developed. He began experimenting in 1894 and set up branches in the rough on opposite sides of the family garden. He was able to receive signals at a distance of 100 meters, and at the end of 1895 had extended over a mile away. He approached the Italian Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, to inform them of their experiences. The Ministry was not interested and if his cousin Henry Jameson Davis, organized a meeting with Nyilliam Preece, who was chief engineer of the British Post Office.

He came to England in February 1896 and made demonstrations in London at the General Post Office building. Their transmissions were detected 1.5 km, and 2 September at Salisbury Plain, in the range has been increased to eight miles. In 1897 obtained a patent for wireless telegraphy and established wireless telegraphy and the Society of the signal in Chelmsford. The factory of the world's radio station opened in 1898. May 11, 1897 The tests were performed to establish that the contacts were possible in the water. A transmitter was set at Lavernock Point near Penarth and the transmissions received from the other side of the Bristol Channel to the island of Holm, a distance of 3.5 kilometers. The Daily Express was the first newspaper to obtain news of the wireless telegraph, in August 1898 and December of this year was the creation of communication between the royal yacht of Queen Victoria, in front of Cowes and Osborne House. Queen was a regular health service announcements, the Prince of Wales, the radio, from the yacht, where he was recovering.

Also in December this year, wireless communication is established between the East Goodwin light ship and lighthouse Foeland South. On March 3, 1899 Marconi received much publicity in the first life was saved by the wireless telegraph, which was used to rescue a ship in distress in the North Sea. In the summer the red channel of communication had been established and published newsletters for the first time sent by the wireless Ocean.

At that time, Marconi began developing tuned circuits for wireless transmission, so that wireless can be configured for a particular frequency, to eliminate all transmissions, except for the interest. He patented the April 26, 1900, under the name of "syntonic Tuned telegraph."

Thursday, December 12, 1901, Marconi and his associates were able to send a signal across the Atlantic. He sailed to Newfoundland with GS Kemp and PW Paget, and received a transmission from Poldhu, Cornwall. The transmission was received at Signal Hill using an antenna kite. The British Government and the Admiralty was very impressed, and many people wanted to invest in new technologies.

The demand has grown and a lot of ships, the new device, which saves many lives. One of the most famous occasion was when the Titanic sank. Signals transmitted by the Marconi Wireless and asked for help to save many lives.

Receivers for the moment, mostly crystal sets, which were very insensitive and non-selective. They were connected to the headset, and needed a long antenna.

At this time wireless was strictly controlled by the post office. It was a simple matter to obtain a license from the reception, but much harder to get permission to use a transmitter. For the Post Office had to be convinced that the applicant had sufficient technical skills or knowledge to operate the transmitter. Output power was limited to ten watts, and the use is allowed only for scientific research or for something useful to the public. A small number of fans had to pass before the First World War. We had at least two of Wolverhampton, Harry Stevens, of Oaklands Road and Vincent J. Waine Helmsley Lodge, Wednesfield.

Mr. Wayne, which began broadcasting in 1898 became well known throughout the local level, when he received the SOS was sent by P. & O. Narrung liner during a storm in the Channel, Boxing Day, 1912. Wireless was his main hobby was an enthusiastic amateur and recorded messages from as far away as Russia, Austria, Hungary, Italy, Africa and America. Designed and built all their transmission and reception equipment, including a spark transmitter and a special sensitive detector. He was never satisfied with the team and always sought to improve its performance. Call sign of Mr. Waine was "ZAX". The three antennas in his back garden and uses some 3,000 meters of thread. The equipment was installed in a cabinet in the dining room so you can use with ease.

Mr. Waine also had links with the independent commercial radio and joined Marconi, Dr. Fleming, and Sir Henry Jackson, who was an admiral of the fleet. He also gave financial assistance to Mr. John Logie Baird, television pioneer.

Mr. Waine eight and a half son, Vincent, was also an amateur radio enthusiast and eager to use his father's equipment. He is able to make a miniature wireless receiving and sending more than three miles.

Mr Waine and his family purchased the point of air lighthouse at the mouth of the River Dee, as a holiday weekend home early 1930. Like a weekend was used as the basis for much of his experimental work.

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