Feature Post

Tuesday, October 25, 2011

The Piano Invention

Europe during the Baroque era, musicians and artists supported by the church, the state and the rich. This system of patronage had been in Italy for hundreds of years, between late 1400 and early 1500, when Michelangelo worked as a sculptor and artist Medlci family in Florence. From 1690 until his death Bartolomeo Cristofori (1655-1731) went to work at the court of the Medici, Prince Ferdinand de 'in Florence, a designer and supervisor of the keyboards. He is known for several innovations in harpsichord construction and especially the invention of the piano.

Mannucci Francis wrote in his diary (February 1711) that began in 1698 Cristofori "arcicembal What makes the piano and forte" (harpsichord soft and hard), tools for mapping of Physicians in 1700 found that at least one had been completed by that date. Article Scipione Maffei in 1711, it was found that in 1709 Cristofori had built three "harpsichord with the plan and strong", a unique feature of his invention was a mechanic, who has made possible the sound at the same time the more points a finger and had therefore be able to produce any work of literature of all the hard and soft Western music changes the player touches the keyboard. Cristofori "piano and forte was the form of a combination of harpsichord and clavichord nearly the power capacity of expression.

Cristofori "piano e forte" has not generated much enthusiasm in Italy. Harpsichord is difficult to control the feel and tone similar, but fainter and sweeter than the best harpsichords of the day. In the late 1730 Gottfrled Silberman read a German because of Maffei in the article and began experimenting on the new design. Bach tried one of his pianos, but did not like the heavy touch and weak treble. Silberman finally got a more accurate description of the Cristofori action. It is reported that Bach was satisfied with the design Silberman recent piano that had a similar case in 1720-Cristofori pianos that survive today.

Cristofori and Silberman tried to build a harpsichord with expressive features. The second half of the 18 th century was dominated by Germans and Austrians are concerned about the clavichord built stronger. Unfortunately, the design of Cristofori's action was so complex that manufacturers after the economy greatly simplified, resulting in a less efficient, which was not generally accepted. Later in the 18 th century, the development of operational planning were really re-invent the principles are treated Cristofori, the inventor of the piano, a stringed instrument keyboard instrument collecting mechanical hammers

That included a complex mechanical action with a hammer, which amounted to a string (heavier than a clavichord string) four times faster than the movement key (eight times faster on their instruments below). It also includes an exhaust system to allow the hammer to rebound freely vibrating string, a check for the hammer to prevent bounce and movement so that the hammer does not play one of the two channels to reduce the volume.

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